1 Netcraft Web Server Survey,

2 Quoted from Maurice Williamson, Minister for Information Technology, 1 March 1996, in his foreword to ‘ImpacT 2001: How Information Technology Will Change New Zealand’

3 Philip Burden, Minister of Commerce, keynote speech to TUANZ conference, 10 August, 1992

4 R.P.R. Miller, Communications between Great Britain and New Zealand 1860–1987, Dunmore Press, 1994, p17 cited in Elisabeth Airey, The Taming of Distance: New Zealand’s first international telecommunications, Dunmore Press, 2005

5 Elisabeth Airey, The Taming of Distance

6 Bateman New Zealand Encyclopedia, 5th edition, 2000

7 In 1837 there were two methods of sending a message along a telegraph line. Wheatstone and Cook’s system required two wires and operators at each end; Samuel Morse’s invention was the preferred technology because it required only a single wire. Messages could be sent at about 35 words per minute using the Morse code, and up to 45 words per minute using Wheatstone and Cook’s apparatus

8 A.C. Wilson, Wire and Wireless 1890–1987, Dunmore Press, 1994, pp26–27

9 ‘The Future With Telecom’ report, Telecom 1991

10 A.C. Wilson, p29

11 Airey


13 Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, edited by A.H. McLintock, originally published in 1966. Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 26 September 2006:

14 Minimum charges for ten-word telegrams in 1868 ranged from a penny a word between nearby stations to eight pence a word for longer routes. A universal rate of one shilling for ten words was adopted in the 1870s. In 1896, sixpence telegrams were adopted to encourage traffic, but by 1915 the postmaster general was speaking publicly of a loss of tuppence on every telegram handled, and the basic rate was increased to eight pence that year and to one shilling in 1920. Charges continued to fluctuate to meet rising costs without noticeable impacting traffic growth. Three and a half million inland telegrams were sent in 1900; 7.25 million in 1920; 4.5 million in 1940; and 7.25 million in 1960. Te Ara Encyclopedia 1966:

15 Sir Julius K.C.M.G Vogel, from The Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, 1966

16 Airey, p13, citing articles in the Nelson Evening Mail 18 February, 1876 and other media coverage

17 Ibid

18 Replaced in the 1880s by a Siphon Recorder, which meant one person at each end could now handle trans-Tasman communications

19 Airey

20 The cable rate to Great Britain from Sydney was £9 9s 6d for 20 words. Traffic increased when charges were reduced in 1902 with the ‘all-red’ route, jointly owned by the British, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand governments. In 1912 a cable was laid between Sydney and Auckland. The Wakapuaka terminal was later abandoned and the cable landed at Titahi Bay near Wellington in 1917. Te Ara Encyclopedia 1966

21 Alexander Graham Bell’s theory of the telephone confirmed by experiment with the first words spoken on 2 June 1875. The first telephone patent, number 174,465, was issued on 7 March, 1876. The first complete sentence was transmitted by telephone in Boston three days later. US Patent Number 174,465, issued on March 3 for ‘Improvements in Telegraphy.’ The first commercial telephone exchange in the world opened at New Haven, Connecticut, 28 January 1878

22 Telecom, press release, Diamond Anniversary of the First International Telephone Service (21 November 1990). Also ‘Phone affair began early,’ Briar Averill, Sunday Star Times, 1 February 1998, commemorating the 120th anniversary of the first long-distance telephone call between Dunedin and Milton

23 ‘The Future With Telecom’ report, Telecom 1991

24 ‘Speaking Your Language,’ Pacific Way , 1991

25 A.C. Wilson, p43


27 A.C. Wilson, p63

28 Post and Telegraph Department Acts 1842–1900 (vol 1) GP Wellington, 100, p262


30 Hugh Barty-King, Girdle Around the Earth: The Story of Cable & Wireless, William Heinemann Ltd, London, 1979, cited in Airey, The Taming of Distance

31 Cable & Wireless was nationalised by the British government in 1947 and all its assets collapsed into the British Post Office

32 The bulk of this material about the competing cable systems is paraphrased from Elizabeth Airey, The Taming of Distance, Dunmore Press, 2005, with permission from the author

33 Hamish Keith, New Zealand Yesterdays, Readers Digest, 1984, page 156

34 From a document which has since been removed from the government’s Radio Spectrum management web site:

35 Keith, p156

36 Ibid

37 From a document which has since been removed from the government’s Radio Spectrum management web site:

38 Wedderspoon 2003

39 Keith

40 Patrick Day, The Radio Years – A History of Broadcasting in New Zealand, Auckland University Press 1994, ISBN 1 86940 094 1

41 Telecom briefing paper, ‘What is a Telephone Exchange,’ December 1991

42 Bateman New Zealand Encyclopedia

43 Te Ara – The Encyclopedia of New Zealand 1966 ref Post Office

44 Telecom New Zealand, press release, 21 November 1990, headlined ‘Diamond Anniversary of the First International Telephone Service’

45 Caslon Analytics telecommunications history page:

46 Telecom New Zealand, press release, 21 November 1990, ‘Diamond Anniversary of the First International Telephone Service’

47 Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand 1966 ref Post Office


49 Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand 1966 ref Post Office

50 There was still some minor use of Morse code through until the 1950s but by the 1962 centennial of its first use in New Zealand it had been superceded by the teleprinter and the telephone. Teleprinters remained in use, one of their main users being the Press Association with its links to various newspapers around the country and as a network of 300 branch-to-branch circuits leased by businesses and government departments. Their use increased from 1964 with automatic telex switching of teleprinter calls on a national network. Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, edited by A.H. McLintock, 1966

51 Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand 1966 ref Post Office

52 Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, Post Office, edited by A.H. McLintock, 1966

53 Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand 1966 ref Post Office

54 Looking Back to Tomorrow, New Zealand Computer Society, 1985, pp38

55 Bateman New Zealand Encyclopedia

56 Stephen Bell, computer journalist, in Looking Back to Tomorrow

57 Philip Burden, Minister of Commerce, keynote speech to TUANZ conference, 10 August 1992


59 The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) changed its name to Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 1971, then back to ARPA in 1993, and back to DARPA in 1996. We refer throughout to DARPA, the current name

60 Lawrence G. Roberts, MIT, Towards a Co-operative Network of Time-Shared Computers, October 1966, was the first ARPANET plan

61 ‘Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication,’ the first design paper on ARPANET published by Larry Roberts

62 Only the RAND study on secure voice was considered to have the goal of building a network that would be resistant to nuclear attack. This was never the goal of ARPANET, although later work on Internetting did emphasise robustness and survivability, including the ability to withstand losses of large portions of the underlying networks

63 The terms ‘hypertext’ and ‘hyperlink’ were coined by Ted Nelson in 1965 to refer to the structure of a computerised information system through which a user can navigate ‘non sequentially’ or without a pre-structured search path

64 Based on the collaborative historical document located at the US Internet Society home page (, including input from many of the Internet’s pioneers and excerpts from technical papers


1 Looking Back to Tomorrow, New Zealand Computer Society, 1985, pp39

2 A.C. Wilson, p165

3 Ibid p152

4 Ibid, p144

5 Ibid p41

6 Looking Back to Tomorrow, New Zealand Computer Society, 1985, pp46–47

7 Where most program data is kept on the stack and queued for greater efficiency rather than having to be called from the software register each time



10 Ibid

11 After 15 years development, engineer Harrington became director of the Canterbury Computer Services Department in the mid-1980s

12 The DEC PDP (programmed data processor) was a series of highly successful computers made by DEC


14 Also known as acoustically coupled modems that were mechanically connected to the phone, fitting over the handset to send and receive signals coming down the phone line and convert them into the zeroes and ones of data streams that could be understood by computers. A primitive device that preceded electrically connected modems

15 The Elliot was a British machine. The company was taken over by General Electric and later became ITL

16 By 1977 the DSIR had developed a gateway with IBM 3270 emulation, which was extended to handle SNA in 1980, long before such products were available from vendors. J.H. Hine, ‘Research Networks in New Zealand,’ Department of Computer Science, Victoria University of Wellington. Technical Report CSD-87-021, 1987

17 Frank March moved from the DSIR to spend a decade as director of Computing Services at Victoria University from 1985

18 J.H. Hine, chapter 6


20 Based on the collaborative historical document located at the US Internet Society home page (, including input from many Internet pioneers and excerpts from technical papers

21 Ibid

22 Overseas experience: the semi-obligatory working holiday young people take before settling in to the workforce

23 The IBM System/360 mainframe computer system family announced by IBM on 17 April 1964 were the first to make a clear distinction between architecture and implementation, allowing compatibility across its range of models. Customers could purchase a smaller system with an upgrade path. The 360-67, first shipped in August 1966, came with the CP/CMS operating system, the original virtual machine system developed at IBM’s Cambridge Scientific Center, in co-operation with MIT researchers. Ref:

24 The predecessor to DEC’s highly successful PDP-8 aimed it at a market that couldn’t afford larger mainframe computers

25 Wilson, p152

26 Ibid, p162–163

27 A young punk anarchist was killed on 18 November 1982, apparently blown up by his own gelignite bomb while trying to breach security at the computer centre. The bomber, 22-year-old Neil Roberts, had the words “This Punk won’t see 23. No Future” tattooed across his chest


29 Development was prevented but ten years later Bastion Point land was returned to Ngati Whatua

30 Colin Beardon, Computer Culture, Reed Methuen, 1985

31 The first international standard packet switching network was developed in the early 1970s and published in 1976 by the CCITT (now ITU). X.25 was designed to become a worldwide public data network similar to the global telephone system for voice, but it never came to pass due to incompatibilities and the lack of interest within the US. It has been used primarily outside the United States for low-speed applications (up to 56kbit/sec) such as credit card verifications, automatic teller machine (ATM) and other financial transactions. X.25 provides a connection-oriented technology for transmission over highly error-prone facilities, which were more common when it was first introduced. Error checking is performed at each node, which can slow overall throughput and renders X.25 incapable of handling real-time voice and video. Source:

32 Wilson, p173

33 Wilson, p174


35 Wilson, p175

36 Vivienne Smith, Reining in the Dinosaur: The remarkable turnaround of New Zealand Post, New Zealand Post, 1997, p23

37 Wilson, p174

38 Ian Duncan and Alan Bollard, Corporatisation and Privatisation: Lessons from New Zealand, Oxford University Press, Auckland, 1992, p7

39 ‘Economic management,’ The Treasury, Wellington, 14 July 1984, p275, p279.

40 Smith, pp43–45

41 The Mason-Morris review began in September 1985

42 Smith, p44

43 Ibid, pp45–46


1 Vint Cerf quoted in various technical media, Wednesday 1 January 2003

2 Bitnet came to mean ‘Because It’s Time Network,’ although the original meaning was ‘Because It’s There Network’

3 At its peak around 1991, Bitnet extended to around 500 organisations and 3,000 nodes within educational institutions. It spanned North America, Europe and some Persian Gulf states but as TCP/IP systems reached maturity and the Internet went mainstream in the early 1990s its popularity rapidly diminished.

4 This increased to a 2Mbit/sec backbone with 64kbit/sec access links in the mid-1980s

5 Paraphrased from


7 Distilled from A Brief History of the Internet by Barry M. Leiner, Vinton G. Cerf, David D. Clark, Robert E. Kahn, Leonard Kleinrock, Daniel C. Lynch, Jon Postel, Larry G. Roberts, Stephen Wolff:

8 This was upgraded to 1.5Mbit/sec by 1988

9 When the strain of the burgeoning ARPANET began stretching the resources provided voluntarily by the larger UUCP hubs in the United States, Rick Adams, a systems administrator at the Centre for Seismic Studies, began looking at a way for commercial organisations to alleviate the burden. UUNET Communications Services began operation in 1987 as a non-profit corporation providing Usenet feeds, email exchange and access to a large repository of software source code and related information. It shed its non-profit status within two years and changed its name to UUNET Technologies. From 2006 UUNET became an internal brand of Verizon business (formerly MCI). Source:

10 Edited from the research of Richard T. Griffiths, Leiden University:

11 Distilled from A Brief History of the Internet

12 NWG, RFC 722, Jack Haverty (MIT), September 1976

13 REXX (REstructured eXtended eXecutor), an interpreted programming language was developed at IBM. It was designed to be both easy to learn and easy to read

14 The company best known for its work on packet switching, ARPANET and the Internet was acquired by GTE in 1998, then GTE and Bell Labs merged to become Verizon in 2000. BBN has been in private hands since 2006.,_Beranek_and_Newman

15 Eric S. Raymond, Origins and History of Unix, 1969–1995, 2003:

16 Andrew Leonard, BSD Unix: Power to the People, from the Code, 2000

17 Culled from A Brief History of Unix by Charles and with a nod to Origins and History of Unix, 1969–1995:, Eric S Raymond, 2003

18 Robert Biddle, formerly of Canterbury University Computer Science Department, in a posting to the nz.general newsgroup, 19 April 1994

19 Biddle chose Cantaur because he expected ‘canterbury’ would one day become a domain name: “Cantuar was also the official abbreviation for the Latin name the Commonwealth Universities Office used for the university, cantuariensis. If you had a BSc from there, you would write J. Bloggs, BSc (Cantuar). A few years later they did away with Latin and made the abbrev ‘cant’ instead. I was disappointed when I got flamed from many places for having a site name that people though was based on centaur spelled wrong.”

20 In Unix and other computer multitasking operating systems, a daemon is a computer program that runs in the background, rather than under the direct control of a user and is usually initiated as a process. The term was coined by the programmers of MIT’s Project MAC and derived from Maxwell’s daemon, an imaginary being from a famous thought experiment that constantly works in the background, sorting molecules. Daemons are also characters in Greek mythology, some of whom handled tasks that the gods couldn’t be bothered with. Source:

21 Robert Biddle

22 Ibid

23 Ibid

24 In 2007, head of the School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science.


26 Minutes of the 26 August 1985 meeting called to discuss university networking, taken by John Hine

27 John H. Hine, Research Networks in New Zealand Technical Report CS-TR-87-021, 12 September 1997

28 Brian Peace was the first chairman of NZUSUG

29 An IBM topology for local area network connections in which all the computers are connected in a star or ring and use a bit or token-passing scheme to prevent the collision of data when messages are being sent concurrently. Token Ring was quickly surpassed by Ethernet on most networks as local area networking came of age

30 The Unix gateway in Maryland was deemed an experiment that might last only a year but in fact it lasted forever, became Altanet, was subsequently bought out by MCI and then later by Worldcom and finally Verizon (Houlker)

31 Cyberspace was a term coined by William Gibson in his 1984 novel Neuromancer, in which he described a futuristic computer network that people could plug their minds into. The term quickly became synonymous with the Internet or on-line world

32 The emacs editor is arguably the editor of choice among many software engineers and referred to as the code cutter’s Swiss army knife

33 Lisp, from ‘list processing,’ originally created as a practical mathematical notation for computer programs. It was one of the earliest programming languages, pioneering many ideas in computer science including tree data structures, automatic storage management dynamic typing, object oriented programming and the self hosting compiler. Linked lists are one of Lisp’s major data structures and Link source code itself is made up of lists. List programs can manipulate source code as a data structure.

34 A DNS software package for Unix/Linux machines. It contains a DNS server, API library and tools. Most of the DNS servers on the Internet run Bind

35 Hine

36 Tony McGregor, History of the Internet debate on NZNog newsgroups, March 2001

37 Hine

38 Everyone knows a classicist is about as far away from computing as you can possibly get. What happened, says March, was as soon as he was appointed, somebody went and dumped a Macintosh on his desk, and he became a computing aficionado

39 Report of the Committee on Information and Computer Services, November 1985, Professor Chris Deardon, 3.2.1b

40 Ibid 4.1.1,

41 Ibid 4.2.1, 4.2.2

42 Ibid 4.7.2

43 Ibid 5.1

44 Ibid 5.3.9

45 Hine

46 Ibid

47 Ibid

48 In the US DARPA funds the ARPANET. CSNET received five years of support from the US National Science Foundation (NSF). Bitnet received substantial support from IBM. Janet in Great Britain was funded by the Computer Board and Research Councils. Japan’s JUNET is funded by KDD International Telephone and Telegraph

49 Domains act like your street address, giving the postal service an exact location for your letters and parcels or the telephone numbers than ensuring the calls get through to your house or business.

50 Hine

51 Doug Edmeades MSc (Hons), PhD, DipManag, MNZSFM, New Zealand Science Review Vol 61 (3–4) 2004.

52 Ibid


1 Marcia Russell, Revolution: New Zealand from fortress to free market, Auckland: Hodder Moa Beckett, 1996

2 D. Henderson, Economic Reform: New Zealand in an international perspective, NZ Business Roundtable, 1996

3 Alan Cameron and Claire Massey, The New Zealand Experiment – Has It Worked For SMEs?, New Zealand Centre for SME Research Management Systems Department, Massey University

4 Milner had been responsible for establishing the second satellite dish at Warkworth in 1982, refurbishing the original Warkworth satellite station a year later and building the earth stations in Wellington and Rangiora

5 Selwyn Arrow, Looking Back to Tomorrow, NZ Computer Society, 1985, p115

6 Colin Beardon, Computer Culture: the information revolution in New Zealand, Reed Methuen, 1985, p154

7 Time cover story, 3 January 1983

8 Arrow

9 Source: The Poly and Aamber Pegasus:

10 Auckland University 1970–1974, Bachelor of Science in Physics & Mathematics, post-graduate studies in Computer Science

11 Stephen Bell, computer journalist, in Looking Back to Tomorrow

12 Arrow

13 Beardon, p14

14 Beardon, p29

15 LandWeber helped found the US university Computer Science Network (CSnet) and played a major role in the development of the global Internet. From 1982 LandWeber helped establish the first Internet gateways between the United States and countries in Europe, Asia, and Latin America, including co-operative relationships between CSnet and national network projects. His informal workshops led to the forming of International Networking Conference (INET), which since 1992 became the annual conference of the Internet Society. LandWeber has been president and chairman of the board of the Internet Society and its vice president for education. Source:

16 Former head of the Federal Networking Council of the United States, who headed the NASA Scientific Internet

17 Founder of Pacific Communications programme (PACCOM)

18 Ping: A test of response time between your computer and the host your are trying to connect to, a rapid response time is desired, a slow response time suggests poor performance or issues on the line or with configuration

19 Telnet is a user command and an underlying TCP/IP protocol for accessing remote computers, including requesting specific files. The result of a Tenet request would be an invitation to log on with a user ID and a prompt for a password

20 Interview with Nevil Brownlee, March 2007

21 Mark Davies, History of the Internet debate on NZNog newsgroup, March 2001

22 Michael Newbery, History of the Internet debate on NZNog newsgroups, March 2001

23 Mark Davies, History of the Internet debate on NZNog newsgroup, March 2001

24 Madin had built the West Coast Federal Internet Exchange and helped convince the US government to move entirely to TCP/IP rather than the OSI protocols it had been contemplating. Madin invented the concept of the Internet exchange, which inspired Houlker to introduce a similar exchange (NZIX) at Waikato in 1990 and later in Auckland

25 On 17 October 1989 a magnitude 7.1 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay area, collapsing a section of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. Damage was estimated at almost $3 billion in San Francisco, half the total damage figure for the entire earthquake zone. The earthquake knocked out power to San Francisco, and the city was dark for the first time since the 1906 earthquake and fire. Power was fully restored by 20 October. Emergency telephone service became sporadic because a fire broke out in the 911 telephone equipment room. The quake killed 62 people throughout Central California, injured 3757 and left more than 12,000 homeless:

26 US-based UUNET Communications Services began operation in 1987 as a non-profit corporation providing Usenet feeds, email exchange, and access to a large repository of software source code and related information

27 Computer programmer Kevin Robert Elz, also known as kre, was a pioneer in connecting Australia to the Internet and more recently was involved in getting Thailand, where he now lives, on line. He helped develop Internet-based research in Australia and operated the .au domain name from 1986 through to the late 1990s and managed the .aus Usenet hierarchy from the 1980s. Some of his achievements include developing a number of important Internet RFC documents, helping connect Australia to the worldwide Internet, developing the Internet-based research network within Australia, and operating the .au domain registry from 1986 through to the late 1990s. He also managed the aus.* Usenet hierarchy from its inception in the 1980s until the mid-1990s. Amongst undergraduate students within the University of Melbourne Computer Science Department in the mid-1990s, he was considered a semi-mystical figure, having written the BSD operating system’s quota system and contributed to its timezone management system. He was rumoured to have a work contract that allowed him time off whenever cricket was being televised. Source:

28 Stone was a Masters student who later went to Stanford University to complete his PhD. Can be contacted via Professor Peter Barett, his stepfather, who’s in Earth Sciences at Victoria

29 PCroute and PCbridge are software programs for IBM PC computers that can convert a PC with the necessary network cards into an IP router (PCroute) or an Ethernet bridge (PCbridge).

30 Tony went on to work for Teletrend, which became Allied Telesyn

31 Ace routers were developed by the DSIR’s Physical Sciences and the Information Technology Group, which became Industrial Research Ltd when the CRIs were formed in 1992. In January 1994 Network Dynamics Ltd acquired the network engineering team of IRL, the Ace Router and all rights from Industrial Research Ltd. It entered a partnership with Securicor 3Net in December 1994, which eventually purchased the company in 1996. In September 1997 Teltrend Inc acquired Securicor 3Net and the New Zealand operation became Teltrend (NZ) Limited. In turn it was acquired by Allied Telesis Japan, and became CentreCOM Systems before reverting to Allied Telesyn Research. The company now has a huge business supplying routers and network equipment worldwide with a 170-strong professional engineering division in Christchurch. Source:

32 ECL subsequently become the country agents for Cisco then went through a series of transitions becoming Case, then Dowty and later Logical, which was purchased by IBM

33 The cable was a multi-mode fibre, carrying Ethernet from the ‘thick-wire’ (10base5) cable in the Hansard office to that in the GPO machine room

34 Now the National Archives building

35 Senior scientist in the library at Apple Computer in Cupertino

36 RS-232 defines the meaning of the different serial signals and their respective pin assignments on a standard 25-pin serial connector. For many years a RS-232-compatible port was a standard feature for serial communications, such as modem connections, on many computers. It remained in widespread use into the late 1990s

37 SCADA refers to the large-scale, distributed measurement and control systems used to monitor or control chemical or transport processes, in municipal water supply systems, to control electric power generation, transmission and distribution, gas and oil pipelines, and other distributed processes

38 MICR (magnetic ink character recognition) numbers on the bottom of a cheque

39 In 1984, the ‘father’ of the Freenet movement, Tom Grunder, created St Silicon’s Hospital and Dispensary, a medical bulletin board system that was an asynchronous, interactive messaging system that allowed users to ask a qualified doctor medical questions. This doctor would answer within hours (Archee 1994, p 30). This grew into the Cleveland Free-Net (Morino 1995). Freenet became Grunder’s trademark for the National Public Telecomputing Network (NPTN). As of December 1995, NPTN had more than 150 affiliated community systems (NPTN, 1995)

40 A program that searches for file names and resources on the Internet and presents results in hierarchical menus. As users select options, they are moved to different Gopher servers. Where links have been established, Usenet news and other information can be read directly from Gopher. Originally introduced in 1991 at the University of Minnesota, and named after the school’s mascot. There were more than 7000 Gopher servers on the Internet at its height. Popularity declined as Web content increased throughout the 1990s.

41 A program that searches the Internet for specific resources by description, not just file name. Using Boolean searches (this AND this, this OR this, etc.), users can search Gopher servers to retrieve a selected group of menus that pertain to their area of interest

42 The Telecommunications Users Association of New Zealand

43 It quickly became permanent


1 Interview with Keith Newman

2 It never happens

3 Speech to TUANZ by SOE Minister Richard Prebble, 7 August 1990

4 Gordon Campbell, ‘Tough Calls,’ NZ Listener, May 17–23, 1997

5 Williamson says he has all the media clippings and documents if anyone challenges his take on what was happening

6 Network World, 12-06-89, Networked PABXs in high-speed link

7 The Commerce Commission withdrew its long running action against Telecom’s Megaplan pricing in March 1995. It concluded the time and costs involved in pursuing this matter to finality would be greater than any benefits that might result. It was no surprise that seven years after the complaint was made, the telecommunications environment had changed so much that no important precedent was likely to be established. Commerce Commission Press Release 31 March 1995

8 Keith Newman, Satellite link offers glimpse of future, Network World, May 29, 1989

9 Frank Bajak, The Press, Tuesday, 1 June 1993

10 The shoot or branch of a creeping plant or the handles on the kete of knowledge. Hiko = random or distant flashing, lightning or something beginning to shine

11 VUW router’s change log says the Kawaihiko DDS links were operating from on 14 Jun 1990. Comments and clarifications by Don Stokes on NZnog newsgroups

12 Donald Neal, ‘The Harvest Object Cache in New Zealand,’ Information & Technology Services, University of Waikato

13 DSIR Act 1974 (section 5a)

14 Doug Edmeades MSc (Hons), PhD, DipManag, MNZSFM, New Zealand Science Review Vol 61 (3–4) 2004.

15 Comments and clarifications by Don Stokes on NZnog newsgroups

16 There were several variants of Mosaic including Netscape which was also the company name used by Andreessen to market his new browser

17 Loosely based on Richard T. Griffiths (Leiden University): plus additional research

18 Based on Netcraft, Google and Yahoo statistics:

19 MUDs (multiuser dungeon, domain or dimension) are a multi-player computer game that combines elements of role-playing games, hack and slash style computer games and social chat rooms. Typically running on an Internet server or bulletin board system, the game is usually text-driven, where players read descriptions of rooms, objects, events, other characters, and computer-controlled creatures or non-player characters (NPCs) in a virtual world. Source:

20 The Simtel archive was first made available on the public Internet in 1993 after its original host on AARPANET was shut down. It was a colossal archive of shareware for various operating systems, particularly Microsoft Windows and MS-Dos

21 Project Gutenberg was founded by University of Illinois student Michael Hart in 1971. It is a volunteer effort to digitise, archive, and distribute cultural works. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books

22 The PACCOM consortium, partly funded the original connection of Internet sites in New Zealand to the rest of the Internet in the United States, via a gateway located at the University of Waikato

23 John Houlker interview with Keith Newman, New Zealand Herald, July 1998

24 From the minutes of the Tuia Society meeting November 1994

25 John Houlker as quoted in the minutes of the meeting

26 NZ becoming telecomms hub, says Hunt, by Keith Newman, Computerworld, 9 July 1990

27 Media briefing document, 18 May 1992

28 Dave King, ‘IT Industry calls Govt bluff,’ The Dominion, June 1992

29 Peter King, Telecom invests in ‘vision,’ The Dominion, 6 July 1992

30 Telecom media release in support of the WCL, 18 June 1992

31 Interview conducted by Keith Newman for feature article in mid-1993

32 Brown was later killed when his plane crashed in Bosnia

33 Godzone, Bob Johnson, Wired, November 1995

34 Hicks insists one of those people was instrumental in setting up Telecom’s Xtra ISP seven years later

35 Letter from Clive Elliott and Alex Mcdonald of lawyers Baldwin Son and Carey to ISOCNZ’s lawyers Rudd Watts & Stone on 18 September 1996

36 In Qantas Airways Limited v The Domain Name Company Limited (2000) 1 NZECC 70-005, the defendant registered the domain name It then attempted to sell the name to Qantas. The High Court was quick to condemn this and ordered the defendant to de-register the name. The Court found that such actions were a deliberate blocking of the lawful exploitation of the name and a fraudulent use of Qantas’s goodwill Dominion Breweries was also successful in its Court action to get the domain name back from the Domain Name Company in DB Breweries Ltd v The Domain Name Company Limited (2000) 1 NZECC 70-009

37 International Networking conference relating to governance and other issues of concerns to the Internet community



2 The Malleus Maleficarum (The Hammer of Witches, Witch Hammer, or the Hexenhammer) is the most infamous treatise on prosecuting witches to have come out of the Middle Ages in Europe. It is a comprehensive witch-hunter’s handbook first published in Germany between 1486 and 1487. The 14 editions that arise from the original spread throughout Europe and had a profound impact on witch trials on the Continent for about 200 years. This work is notorious for its vivid misogyny and equating witchcraft with heresy. The Malleus was originally prefaced by the main papal document on witchcraft issued by Pope Innocent VIII on December 5, 1484. It mentions Inquisitors James Sprenger and Heinrich Kramer by name and directs them to combat witchcraft in northern Germany. Source: Wikipedia

3 Fidonet was founded as a non-commercial network in 1984 by Tom Jennings of San Francisco, California as a means of networking BBS that used his own Fido BBS software. Other BBS software over time was adapted to support his Fidonet protocols and the network became a popular means for hobbyist computer users to communicate. Fidonet has designated co-ordinators at each level to manage the administration of nodes and resolve disputes. Network co-ordinators are responsible for managing the individual nodes within their area. The Fidonet system officially referred only to transfer of netmail, private messages between BBS users. A netmail message would contain the name of the sender and recipient and their Fidonet addresses and the system would route the message from one system to the other until it reached the intended recipient. Netmail allowed for the ‘attachment’ of a single file to every message which led to the automated distribution of files between BBS including games. By far the most commonly-used piggyback protocol was Echomail, which enabled public discussions similar to Usenet newsgroups. Source:

4 Paraphrased from One Byte and You’re Hooked, by Tess Redgrave, New Zealand Readers’ Digest, December 1990

5 Circuit riders explore Internet Web, The Press, 1 June 1993

6 Simpson later founded Aardvark as a successful Web news content provider

7 Tandy Radio Shack’s home computer launched in August 1977 as a direct competitor to the Commodore PET 2001 and the Apple II. Initially the company was unsure how well the machine would sell and kept the initial production run to 3000 units. It sold 10,000 in the first month and 550,000 the first year. The TRS-80 came with cassette input for programs and storage and had to have a special extension to use floppy disks. The motherboard and keyboard were integrated into one unit. The basic unit came with 4k of RAM and later 16k. The processor ran at 1.77MHz. Ref:

8 A small conspicuous constellation in the southern hemisphere in the Milky Way near the Southern Cross, also known as the Jewel Box or Kappa Crucis Cluster

9 Christina Enright, Strategic Behaviour of Internet Service Providers in New Zealand and the Performance of this Market, March 2000:,4849/4849_ausnz_020600.pdf

10 From Michael Newbery, A Short Catechism on the Internet, Information Technology Services Victoria University of Wellington, revision 8, 3 June 1993

11 Essentially Prof John Hine, Mark Davies, Duncan McEwan, Bernd Gill, and Andy Linton

12 Copied to Bernd Gill at the Victoria University Department of Computer Science


14 Rack-mounted modems made New Zealand company Comcor Technology

15 A spin-off from the DSIR Industrial Research Labs which later became Allied Telesyn

16 The position was taken up by Sid Jones, who moved on to work for TelstraClear when it purchased NetLink


18 (original profile document since removed)

19 The Telnet (Teletype network) protocol provides a facility for remote log-ins to computers via the Internet, for terminal emulation. A telnet program running on a client can run a log-in session on a remote computer where commands can be read by a telnet server program. It was developed in 1969 and became one of the first Internet standards. A user may telnet remotely to check email or log in into account information and execute operating system commands on that remote computer. Telnet was considered a highly insecure means of accessing remote resources

20 Christine Robertson, ‘Actrix joins multimedia centre,’ Evening Post, 25 May 1996

21 A movement based around alternative economics, founded by James Robertson and based in London and offering a ‘people-centred’ approach as opposed to the approach taken by those who attend the annual G8 summits. TOES holds its annual gatherings to coincide with G8

22 Gerrit Bahlman was the IT manager at the time

23 Later acquired by Quicksilver and then Whoosh in 2006

24 Alan Marston’s father, John Lesley Marston (Jack), was a member of the Communist Party of NZ before going off to WWII and on his return became a core member of the Dunedin Branch of the CPNZ. At the time the CPNZ was “aligned with China” but Marston after visiting China denounced Mao as a dictator and began siding more with the Russian version. His branch was expelled from the CPNZ and he went on to become a founding member of the New Zealand Socialist Unity Party. Source:


26 Combining the functionality of a bridge and a router

27 An open source computer operating system which is essentially a free variant of Unix. The project to begin compiling together such a system began with the GNU Project and was ultimately pieced together when Fin Linus Torvalds wrote the kernel in 1991

28 Biddle later became a lecturer in computer science at Victoria University


1 Aardvark News, 30 May 1997

2 Brian Rudman, ‘How to net a family fortune,’ Weekend Herald 17–18 July 1999

3 Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of real-time Internet chat or synchronous conferencing. It is mainly designed for group (many-to-many) communication in discussion forums called channels but also allows one-to-one communication and data transfers via private message

4 KCCS Internet Hall of Shame. Page since removed

5 Midland was sold to Jets Internet in the last quarter of 1997

6 KCCS Internet Hall of Shame. Page since removed

7 Voyager initially charged $6.95 an hour and Xtra $4.95 per hour, but Voyager immediately dropped its price to $5.95

8 The Ihug/ESnet merger occurred on 29 October 1996

9 Brian Rudman

10 Chris Barton, PC Magazine, December 1995

11 Russell Brown, ‘Telecom’s Xtra agony,’ Unlimited, Tuesday, December 1998

12 ICMP is one of the core protocols of the IP suite, chiefly used by the operating systems of networked computers to send error messages, indicating, for example, that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached

13 KCCS Internet Hall of Shame. Page since removed

14 Russell Brown

15 The X-shaped junction was a shameless knock-off of the interface for Apple’s eWorld according to Russell Brown

16 Telecom 1998 Financial Statements

17 Christina Enright, ‘Strategic Behaviour of Internet Service Providers in New Zealand and the Performance of this Market,’ March 2000. Updated document now at,4849/4849_ausnz_020600.pdf

18 KCCS Internet Hall of Shame. Page since removed

19 Christina Enright

20 Christina Enright

21 Russell Brown

22 www,, 23 December 1996

23 Steve Evans, ‘Telecom cleared over Xtra but scrutiny continues,’ The Dominion, 19 December 1996

24 Russell Brown

25 Ibid

26 Aardvark News, 2 December 1996

27 Clear announced its intention to start an Internet access service in July 1996

28 Aardvark News, 16 December 1996

29 Aardvark News, 18 December 1996

30 Aardvark News, 20 December 1996

31 Press release: ‘Web world Customers Offered $5 credit for Xtra CD,’ Auckland, 18 March 1997

32 Aardvark News, 18 March 1997

33 Aardvark News, 30 May 1997

34 OzEmail was later sold to MCI Worldcom

35 Chris Barton, ‘Sizing the Net in New Zealand,’ PC June 1996

36 Chris Barton, ‘Whatever your pick on surveys, the Net is big,’ NZ Herald, Tuesday, 15 December 1998

37 Press release from Botica Conroy & Associates: ‘Understanding the New Zealand Internet Market,’ 4 February 1998

38 Christina Enright

39 NZ Herald, 7 November 98

40 Paraphrased from Telecom’s Xtra agony, Russell Brown, Unlimited, Tuesday, December, 1998 (with permission)

41 Chris Barton ‘PC buyers receive rough and of deal’ NZ Herald, 25 August 1998; ‘Chipping away at breaking the cycle and confusion reigns at price point,’ NZ Herald,10 November 1998



2 Keynote speaker at TUANZ conference, August 1993

3 According to Statistics New Zealand average residential phone call pricing plummeted 50% between 1987 and 1993

4 Gordon Campbell, ‘Tough Calls,’ NZ Listener, 17–23 May 1995 Ibid

6 Paraphrased from a feature article for Communique Magazine, August 1993 by Keith Newman

7 Ibid

8 Ibid

9 Keith Newman, ‘Changes to WWW charges in pipeline,’ Network World, 17 February 1995

10 Keith Newman, ‘The bandwidth economy,’ PC Magazine, February 1996

11 Donald Neal, ‘The Harvest Object Cache in New Zealand,’ Information & Technology Services, The University of Waikato

12 Chris Barton, ‘The Kiwi Connection, New Paths to The Net,’ PC Magazine, December 1995

13 Christina Enright, ‘Strategic Behaviour of Internet Service Providers in New Zealand and the Performance of this Market,’ March 2000: Updated document now at,4849/4849_ausnz_020600.pdf



16 Keith Newman, ‘Competition at last?,’ PC Magazine, September 1996

17 Adrienne Perry, ‘Telstra to spend $30m in NZ,’ The Dominion, 11 August 1997

18 Keith Newman, ‘Regulation by litigation,’ LAN Magazine Australia, July 1997

19 Keith Newman, ‘Internet relief well overdue,’ PC Magazine, June 1997

20 Aardvark News, 29 January1997

21 Aardvark News, 7 May 1997

22 Aardvark News, 20 August 1997

23 Keith Newman, ‘Internet relief well overdue,’ PC Magazine, June 1997

24 The proposal was shelved for a time but went ahead in 1999 with Wellington CityLink locating equipment on the 48th floor of the Sky Towers and an equivalent exchange established in Wellington (WIX)

25 Prof John Tiffin, Keynote speech to the TUANZ conference in Christchurch, 24 August 1987

26 Ibid

27 Telecom media release, 21 November 1990

28 Paraphrased from a feature article for Communique Magazine, August 1993 by Keith Newman

29 Keith Newman, ‘The Bandwidth Bottleneck,’ Communique Magazine, February 1993

30 ‘Telecom Acts to Trim Charges for ISDN,’ NZ Herald, 8 August 1997

31 ATM is a cell relay or circuit switching network protocol which encodes traffic into fixed cell sizes or frames rather than packets which are used by Ethernet and IPNetworks. ATM is connection-oriented technology, and establishes a logical link between the two endpoints before the data exchange begins. ATM has proved very successful for wide area networking (WANs) scenario and many carriers have implemented it in their network backbones. However, ATM failed to gain wide use as a local area networking technology, and its complexity has held back its full deployment as the single integrating network technology in the way its inventors intended. For example ATM is increasingly challenged by the converged nature of much modern day network requirements.

32 Keith Newman, NZ Herald, 8 August 1997

33 Keith Newman, ‘Anyone for seconds,’ PC Magazine, June 1997

34 Gordon Campbell, ‘Tough Calls,’ NZ Listener, 17–23 May 1997

35 Ibid

36 Aardvark News, 26 February 1997

37 Bob Johnstone, Wired magazine, November, 1995

38 Keith Newman, ‘Pay TV subscribers missing out,’ NZ Herald, 5 August 1997

39 Keith Newman, ‘Telecom tests broadband,’ NZ Herald, 12 August 1997

40 NZ Herald, 5 December 1997

41 Keith Newman, NZ Herald interview, November 1997

42 While it owned considerable spectrum a decade later Telecom had used very little of it for the purposes intended. Some claimed Telecom acquired important spectrum that could have been used by others to deliver competitive services

43 Keith Newman, column, Metro magazine, October 1999

44 Keith Newman, ‘DSL trials,’ NZ Herald, November 1997

45 Keith Newman, ‘Telecom tests broadband,’ NZ Herald, 12 August 1997

46 Keith Newman, ‘Rewiring the nation,’ unpublished feature, 16 July 1997

47 Keith Newman, ‘Telecom prepares for ATM Network,’ NZ Herald, 20 May 1997

48 Brian Gaynor, ‘Americans quit after making their dough,’ NZ Herald, 27 December1997

49 Clinton-Gore, October 1997

50 Revised from Keith Newman, ‘The rhythm method of competition law,’ Metro magazine, July 1998


1 Keith Newman, ‘Consumers seek new telecoms services,’ NZ Herald, 21 October 1998; ‘NZ must lift its high-tech game,’ NZ Herald, 29 October, 1998

2 Keith Newman, ‘Internet bandwidth battle begins,’ TUANZ Topics July 1999 plus other research

3 Keith Newman, ‘Last Mile Green Out,’ Metro magazine, October 1998

4 John Houlker interview, 17 July 1998

5 Russell Brown, ‘Telecom’s Xtra agony,’ Unlimited, December, 1998

6 Ibid

7 Christina Enright, ‘Strategic Behaviour of Internet Service Providers in New Zealand and the Performance of this Market,’ March 2000: Updated document now at,4849/4849_ausnz_020600.pdf

8 Keith Newman, ‘Flat fee for Net access is norm,’ NZ Herald, 11 June 1999

9 Keith Newman, ‘Rerouting the Internet traffic jam,’ Australian Reseller News, 12 July 1999

10 Ibid

11 Telecom Press release September 1999

12 NZ Herald, June 1999

13 Interview with Carl Penwarden, who was heading the DSL trials in 1998

14 ‘High-speed Net from Telecom,’ NZ Herald, 29 September 1999

15 Keith Newman, ‘Internet bandwidth battles begin, TUANZ Topics, July 1999

16 Keith Newman, ‘Lloyd puts national DSL roll-out on hold,’ NZ Herald, 6 July 1999

17 Keith Newman, ‘Ihug pulls plug on its network huggers,’ NZ Herald, 6 July 1999

18 Keith Newman, ‘Access Denied,’ Australian Reseller News, January 2000

19 Keith Newman, ‘Telecom cries wolf,’ Australian Reseller News, April 2000

20 ‘Court action on 0867 access,’ NZ Herald, August 2000

21 A finding borne out by the Ministerial Telecommunications Inquiry handed to the government in October 2000

22 ‘Court action on 0867 access,’ NZ Herald, 1 August 2000

23 Paul Budde, ‘Communication Telecommunications and Information Highways Report 2000/2001’

24 Telecommunications and Information Highways, Paul Budde Communications 2001, principal research for New Zealand ISP section, Keith Newman

25 Keith Newman, ‘Peddle to the metal for cable venture,’ Australian Reseller News, February 2000



28 ISOCNZ Discussion Document on Cryptography released:


30 Sue Leader, final report to the ISOCNZ Council, December 2002



33 June 1999: 0867 and Kiwi Share Response:


1 David Legard, Internet News, Singapore, 14 February 2000

2 Keith Newman, ‘Last mile “green out”,’ Metro magazine, October 1998

3 NZ Herald, July 1999

4 NZ Herald, 7 November 1998

5 Keith Newman, ‘Bandwidth battle begins,’ TUANZ Topics, July 1999

6 NZ Herald articles and interviews with Keith Newman, August 99

7 ‘Cup, Apec, New Year threat to NZ pipes,’ NZ Herald and personal interviews with Keith Newman circa July 1999

8 Keith Newman, ‘Anarchy rules,’ Metro, July 2000

9 Keith Newman, ‘Peddle to the metal for cable venture,’ Australian Reseller News, February 2000

10 Amended from reports in, November 2000


12 Keith Newman, ‘Access Denied,’ Metro, November 2000

13 Manufacturing faults showed up in the Southern Cross cable in 2002 and 2004, which were covered under warranty but caused sections of the cable to be dredged up and replaced

14 Keith Newman, ‘Fewer ISPs Have Greater Share,’, 18 July 2000

15 Paul Budde, ‘Information Superhighways in New Zealand report 1999–2000’

16 Keith Newman, ‘Data Use Forces Upgrades,’, March 2001

17 Wigley & Company paper presented to New Zealand computer society, The Law of IT seminar, October 2002

18, November 2000

19, November 2000

20 Keith Newman, ‘Data Use Forces Upgrades,’, March 2001

21 Keith Newman, ‘Choking on Broadband Hype,’ NZ Business Times, 13 July 2001

22 ‘Telecommunications Use, Constraints and Potential In rural Areas report,’ Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, July 2000

23 Keith Newman, ‘No Time To Sit On The Fence,’ NZ Business Times, 19 October 2001

24 Keith Newman, ‘Beefing Up Your Bandwidth,’ Home Technology, November 2001

25 OECD 2001 ‘Development of Broadband Access’ report

26 Ironically Gibbs vented her frustration in the media at not being able to access Telecom’s DSL service in January 2007 despite living in Paritai Drive, one of the wealthiest streets in New Zealand. As for the Piha episode Telecom announced on 15 September 2003 that 77 percent of Piha residents could finally get DSL

27 Review of Christchurch cable, Christchurch Press, 16 November 2001

28 Commerce Commission report number 447 on TelstraSaturn’s acquisition of Clear Communications, 7 December 2001

29 ‘Clear under Telstra: Higher prices, job cuts,’ The Independent, 31 October 2001

30 Keith Newman, ‘Lazy Telcos Hold Us To Ransom,’ NZ Business Times, February 2002


1 Graham T. Crocombe, Michael J. Enright and Michael E. Porter, Upgrading New Zealand’s Competitive Advantage, Oxford Press, 1991

2 Keith Newman, ‘Guru takes time to reflect on economic reforms,’ NZ Herald, 4 November 1998

3 Keith Newman, ‘Porter stresses need for a national vision,’ NZ Herald, 10 November 1998

4 Keith Newman, ‘Hi-tech groups can lead growth: Wilde,’ NZ Herald, 2 November 1998

5 Keith Newman, ‘We’ve been snoozing,’ Metro, October 1999

6 Miriana Alexander, ‘NZ basks in global glory worth millions,’ Sunday Star Times, 31 October 1999

7 James Gardiner, ‘Our $12 m quest for the Holy Grail,’ NZ Herald, 5 January 2000

8 Keith Newman, ‘Adapted form Kiwis in cultural crisis,’ Metro, August 1998

9 Trevor Eagle, who died in December 2000, was the founding president of the Information Technology Association (ITANZ) in 1988, and the government’s first appointment to its Technology for Business Growth (TBG) advisory committee in 1992 and chairman of the Hi-tech Council, tasked with keeping the government informed about industry needs. Keith Newman, ‘Obituary Trevor Eagle: Passionate IT Advocate,’ NZ Herald, 14 December 2000

10 Previously unpublished comments from interviews with Trevor Eagle, 1999

11 Sir Angus Tait died at the age of 88 on 7 August 2007. He founded Tait Electronics in 1969, with a second mortgage on his house, after a previous business went broke in 1967. The business grew to employ 750 people with revenues of around $170 million

12 Keith Newman, NZ Herald, June 1999

13 Keith Newman, ‘Visionary leadership overdue,’ MIS magazine column, May 2001

14, February 2001

15 ‘Catching a Deluge In a Paper Cup,’ NZBT, 27 July 2001

16 Keith Newman, ‘Kiwi Edge Needs Sharpening,’, April 2001

17 ‘Catching a Deluge In a Paper Cup’

18 Keith Newman research from articles for and MIS magazine in February and August 2001

19 Simon Collins, ‘Catching up a tall order,’ Weekend Herald 22–23 February 2003

20 Cathy Aronson, ‘Cutbacks rob knowledge banks,’ NZ Herald, 28 July 2001

21 Keith Newman,’Kickstarting The Knowledge Economy,’ MIS, Dec 2001

22 Keith Newman, ‘Based on copy from Losing our mind,’ Metro, June 1999

23 Keith Newman, ‘IT Skills Shortage Unabated,’ NZBT, November 2001

24 Brian Fallow, ‘The numbers show we’re born to leave,’ Weekend Herald, 1 March 2003

25 Keith Newman presentation to Flaxroots conference at AUT, ‘Changing Gears,’ 11 April 2002

26 Chris Barton, ‘Ambitious goal in days of the dotcom wreck,’ NZ Herald, 11–12 January 2003

27 Simon Collins, ‘Catching up a tall order’

28 Rod Oram, ‘We have our own wave of knowledge,’ Sunday Star Times, 2 March 2003

29 Alan MacDiarmid died on 8 February 2007. MacDiarmid was one of three joint winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery and development of conductive polymers in 2000. He was made a Member of the Order of New Zealand, for his outstanding contribution to chemistry and the New Zealand science community in 2001. Throughout his career he has maintained close research links with the Victoria University of Wellington School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, the Crown Research Institute, Industrial Research Ltd, at Lower Hutt, and the Royal Society of New Zealand.

30 View the growing archive on our heroes of innovation at the NZEdge web site:

31 Keith Newman, ‘Contradictions for Entrepreneurs,’ NZBT, 30 November 2001


1 John Lozowsky came from the New York State Archives to work at New Zealand National Archives in the late 1980s at the invitation of former chief archivist Ray Grover. He had worked in New York as an IT consultant for two years and had a vision for computerisation at National Archives, enthusing many with his ideas about the application of IT. He left National Archives in 1991 and moved to the Treasury. He later worked at the Department of Health as the assistant director of IT and was the IT manager at the Ministry of Health in Wellington from January 1996 to April 1999 ( Lozowsky was contracting for international business consultancy group Marsh & McLennan, in the Twin Towers and had allegedly gone into work early on the morning of the terrorist attack so he could get home early for his son’s birthday. He died in 9/11

2 Keith Newman, NZ Herald, May 1997

3 Interview with Scott Matthias, for NZ Herald, February 1999

4 NZ Herald, 2 November 1998

5 Keith Newman, ‘Zero hour for chips,’ Metro, May 1998

6 Keith Newman interviews and research June–July 2000 including quotes published in NZ Business Times

7 Keith Newman, ‘E’ by Govt, The Boss Magazine, October 2001 (the first and only issue)

8 Keith Newman, ‘E-Government Evidence Urged,’ NZ Business Times column, 14 September 2001

9 Stephen Bell, ‘No worries on e-govt survey says Mallard,’ IDGNet, 29 April 2002

10 Keith Newman, ‘E-government Balances Official Spying,’ NZ Business Times, 9 October 2001

11 Adam Gifford, ‘Government’s e-buying scheme takes next step,’ NZ Herald, 4 September 2001

12 Keith Newman, ‘E’ by Govt, The Boss Magazine

13 Paraphrased from Computerworld, Stephen Bell, 15 November 2002 and other sources


15 Hansard, 13 November 2003:

16 NetGuide Best Government web site winner in 2003

17 Government Web portal increasingly popular, 14 July 2004

18 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘E-govt projects number more than 100,’ The Dominion, 29 September 2003

19 Keith Newman, ‘Surfers wasting less time,’ Home Technology, November 2003


1 Later acquired by the National Bank

2 ‘Internet use booming globally,’ Reuters, 21 November 2002


4 ‘Telecommunications and Information Highways in New Zealand,’ Budde Communications 1998–1999

5 An intranet is an internal, company-wide Internet-based network that gives common access to important company information from price lists to processes, procedures, employment guidelines, and newsletters. An extranet would be an extension of your internal Intranet to business partners or those in the supply chain offering access to catalogues, price lists, or core information needed to facilitate their working in with your company

6 Keith Newman, ‘Ecommerce Star about to rise,’ TUANZ Topics, April 1999

7 NZ Herald, 21 September 1999

8 Keith Newman, ‘E-Lessons from the Fallout Shelter,’ NZBT 3 August 2000

9 ‘Telecommunications and Information Highways in New Zealand 2001,’ Paul Budde Communications

10 Keith Newman, ‘Ecommerce Consolidation,’ MIS Magazine, August 2000

11 Budget 2000 government, press release, 15 June 2000

12 ‘Electronic Commerce in New Zealand: A Survey of Business Use of the Internet,’ Ministry of Economic Development, 2000

13 Keith Newman, ‘Kiwis Flying With Best in e-World,’ Home Technology, 2000

14 Budde 2001

15 Telecom shed its 10 percent interest in EDS after dissolving the eSolutions partnership both had formed with Microsoft in 2002

16 Keith Newman, ‘e-Commerce Entry Made Easier,’, November 2000

17 Budde, 2001

18 Keith Newman, ‘e-Commerce Entry Made Easier’

19 Keith Newman, ‘Batten Down the Hatches,’ MIS, September 2001 and related research

20 Ian Miller, ‘Internet Commerce, Sizzle or Hype,’ Home Technology, November 2001

21 Keith Newman, ‘Maturing the e-Market Model,’ NZBT, 2 December 2001

22 Makin’ bacon on the net, Australian Reseller News, November 1999

23 Keith Newman, ‘Maturing the e-Market Model’

24 Keith Newman, ‘Rewards for eBusiness Risks,’ TUANZ Topics, February 2002

25 Media statement, ‘The E-Commerce Strategy: One year on’

26 Kevin Taylor, ‘Businesses embrace opportunities of the Internet,’ NZ Herald, 17 May 2002

27 Paul Swain, press release, ‘eCAT report a stock take of e-commerce initiatives,’ 16 June 2003



30 Keith Newman, ‘Surfers wasting less time,’ Home Technology, November 2003

31 Keith Newman, ‘Kiwis becoming more cultured,’ Home Technology, November 2003

32 Keith Newman, ‘Why TradeMe works’ Trade Me, iStart, August 2002

33 Vikki Bland, iStart October 2004

34 Owen Hembry, ‘Kiwis embrace on-line shopping,’ NZ Herald, 18 January 2005

35 Keith Newman, ‘On-line commerce goes mainstream,’ Home Technology, November 2005


1 Position paper: Domainz, the New Zealand Internet Registry Ltd, ISOCNZ inc for governance in the .nz DNS, prepared by Patrick O’ Brien, CEO Domainz, March 1999

2 ISOCNZ was formed in November 1995

3 Stephen Bell, ‘The keeper of the keys,’ CIO, December 1999

4 Russell Brown, interview with Jim Higgins and Patrick O’Brien, Friday Fry-up, Computerworld, 12 August 1997

5 Council meeting, 14 November 2006, elected Jim Higgins as chairperson. Donald Neal was re-elected as secretary and Colin Jackson as treasurer. All of the officers were elected unopposed. Source:

6 A reference to Telecom Xtra’s advertising campaign to win over Internet customers

7 Ruling the NZ domain, Infotech Weekly, 13 December 1999

8 Aardvark article by Bruce Simpson, 17 March 1997

9 Aardvark, 14 January 1997

10 Aardvark, 20 January 1997

11 Aardvark, 4 February 1997

12 Stephen Bell, ‘The keeper of the keys’

13 Russell Brown interview with Jim Higgins and Patrick O’Brien

14 Keith Newman, NZ Herald, March 1998

15 ISOCNZ AGM minutes 1998/99

16 Stephen Bell

17 Russell Brown

18 Ibid

19 Aardvark, 15 January 1998

20 Recollections of Sue Leader

21 ISOCNZ AGM Report, 1998/99

22 DNC Annual Report, April 2003–March 2004

23 InternetNZ press release: ‘150,000 people say Yes to .nz,’ April 2005

24 InternetNZ press release: ‘.nz Registrations Hit 300,000,’ 26 September 2007

25 The Lawlink Group Ltd and article at

26 pp366–367; pp102, 570–102, 571 of the June judgement

27 At p367; p102, 571

28 Oggi Advertising ltd v McKenzie 12-PRNZ 535

29 NZ Herald, 28 July 1998

30 Previously unpublished quote from 1998 interview

31 Keith Newman, ‘Net’s future management dominates conference,’ NZ Herald, 4 August 1998

32 Patrick O’Brien posting on newsgroup 7 October 1998 in response to questions from Peter Mott and David Farrar

33 Position paper: Domainz, the New Zealand Internet Registry Ltd, ISOCNZ inc for governance in the .nz DNS, prepared by Patrick O’ Brien, CEO Domainz, March 1999

34 ‘Ruling the NZ domain,’ InfoTech Weekly, 13 December 1999

35 Domainz AGM minutes 1999

36 Adam Gifford, ‘Domainz takes flak after server failure,’ NZ Herald, 14 March 2000

37 Paul Brislen, ‘Alternative registry model put up against Domainz plan,’ Computerworld, 13 March 2000

38 MOVED : (Farrar/Heath) That ISOCNZ Council set up an open working group to investigate a full proposal on possible shared registration systems and other registry models after consultation with Domainz. CARRIED : 6. Abstentions: Harris, Vorstemans, Adlam, Higgins, P Dengate Thrush, Scott” Minutes at

39 Computer industry visionary Perce Harpham started the country’s first software development company in 1968 then pushed computer-based learning through his own purpose-built Poly computer. In the mid-1980s his educational computing company Progeni was on the verge of pulling off a major deal with the Chinese government when it collapsed

40 Perce Harpham, submissions to the Ministerial inquiry into Telecommunications 2000, 23 May 2000

41 Material sourced from Zanetti’s blog:, and Google’s archive of Usenet, where the mailing list in question was gated to


43 ICANN press release: ‘New Chairman of ICANN Elected Unanimously,’ 5 November 2007

44 Press release: ‘InternetNZ congratulates new ICANN Chair,’ 3 November 2007 45

46 The first General Manger of APTLD was ISOCNZ councillor Don Hollander, appointed in June 2006, from a field of hundreds of applicants from all over the region

47 Patrick Crewdson, ‘Bereaved lawyer talks of crash tragedy,’ NZ Herald, 2July 2006


1 ISOCNZ AGM 23 June 2000:

2 ISOCNZ meeting minutes, 23 December 1999, quoted by Peter Dengate Thrush

3 ISOCNZ AGM, 23 June 2000

4 Motions from the council meeting of the ISOCNZ Inc held at Museum Hotel de Wheels, Cable Street, Wellington, 7 July 2000

5 Council Motions, 7 July 2000:

6 Precis of article: ‘Anonymous calls tipped off Herald to billionaire case,’ Matthew Dearnaley, 31 August 2000

7 Latin from the beginning or relying on first principles or established laws of nature

8 Russell Brown, ‘Domainz CEO walks,’ Computerworld, Monday, 4 September, 2000

9 Paul Brislen, ‘ISP threatens to sue Domainz,’ Computerworld,

28 August, 2000

10 Ibid

11 Russell Brown, ‘Domainz CEO walks’

12 Michael Foreman, ‘High award for cyber-slur,’ NZ Herald, 1 September 2001


14 An open or insecure relay makes it possible for an unscrupulous sender to route large volumes of spam through a third party email server


16 Kieren McCarthy, ‘Orbs death,’ The, 5 June 2001

17 Doug Mercer’s ‘SRS Final Implementation Report,’ 8 September 2003

18 Review of Registry Structure of the .nz ccTLD, Working Group Final Report, 20 October 2000

19 Russell Brown, ‘Domainz system still not stable, says new CEO,’ Computerworld, 21 November 2000

20 Doug Mercer’s ‘SRS Final Implementation Report,’ 8 September 2003




24 (this is only the oral submission for some reason)

25 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Internet Society’s tangled Web,’ Infotech, 16 July 2001

26 Paul Brislen, ‘Domain name commissioner wanted,’ Computerworld, 19 February 2002

27 Doug Mercer’s ‘SRS Final Implementation Report,’ 8 September 2003

28 Paul Brislen, ‘SRS goes live without any drama,’ Computerworld, 15 October 2002

29 Paul Brislen, ‘Domainz sale a “win-win” situation,’ Computerworld, 21 August 2003

30 InternetNZ Annual Report April 2003–March 2004

31 ‘The start of the global governance debate,’ from ISOCNZ Council minutes, 3 December 1997, Supplied by Sue Leader

32 ISOCNZ Council Minutes, 14 April 1998, ISOCNZ Submission on the Magaziner paper:

33 ISOCNZ Minutes, 22 August 1998, “IANA report back”

34 NZ Herald, 4 May 1999

35 Stephen Bell, ‘The keeper of the keys,’ CIO, December 1999

36 VeriSign was founded in 1995 as a spin-off of the RSA Security certification services business with licences to key cryptographic patents. Its Internet Services division includes Naming & Directory Services, which house the DNS for .com and .net, as well as other DNS-related services

37 Sue Leader, ‘Challenging old processes with passion and idealism,’ opinion piece, Infotech, 10 December 2001

38 Stephen Bell, ‘Internet community more constructive says Cerf,’ Computerworld, 19 February2003

39 InternetNZ-ICANN Exchange letters, The Browser, InternetNZ, March 2007

40 Stephen Bell, ‘Internet too US-centric, say summit delegates,’ Computerworld, 11 December 2003

41 Victoria Shannon, ‘The Internet’s chief operating officer, Australian seeks to defuse feuds,’ International Herald Tribune, 6 August 2005

42 Stephen Bell, ‘Governance still overshadows WSIS,’ Computerworld, 30 November 2005

43 Adam Bennett, ‘Unlikely bedfellows block Internet porn,’ NZ Herald, 31 March 2006

44 Lisbon ICANN meeting, 10 May 2007

45 ‘Internet conference focuses on Web attacks,’ NZ Herald-NZPA, 28 March 2006

46 InternetNZ and ICANN in Exchange of Letters Media Release, 31 October 2007


1 Keith Newman interview for NZ Herald, September 1999

2 Internet Safety Group report, 2003, p5

3 Keith Newman, ‘Anarchy Undermined,’ Metro, February 1998

4 Russell Brown, ‘Internal Affairs nabs a Net porn offender every 3-5 days,’ Computerworld, 4 July 2000

5 Interview with John Thackray conducted for a NZ Herald article in June 1998

6 ‘Convictions overturned as loophole in law revealed,’ NZ Herald, 23 October 1998

7 Chris Barton, ‘Hacker may face US law,’ NZ Herald, 21 November 1998; ‘Computer hacker destroys 4500 web sites,’ 23 November 1998: ‘web site vandalism shows law in need of shake-up,’ 24 November 1998

8 ISOCNZ press release: ‘Hacking issues need to be put into perspective,’ December 1998

9 Keith Newman interview for NZ Herald, September 1999

10 ‘Telecom fraud detection system comes up trumps,’ Dominion Infotech, April 1999

11 Paul Yandall, ‘Phreaker given PD for making 21,000 toll calls,’ NZ Herald, 23 July 1999

12 ‘What are the main security threats?,’ iStart security feature, 2002

13 Peter Griffin, ‘Government to patrol cyber-beat,’ NZ Herald, 8 August 2001, plus government press release

14 James Gardiner, ‘Telco under cyber attack,’ Weekend Herald, 22–23 September 2001

15 Keith Newman, ‘eCrime Bill Eases Burden on “old Bill”,’ TUANZ Topics, September 2001

16 Computerworld, 10 October 2002

17 News items, October 2003

18 NZ Police press release : ‘Police welcome changes to Crimes Act,’ 4 July 2003:


20 ‘Marijuana virus wreaks havoc in Australian Defence Department,’ The Dominion, Monday 14 August 1989

21 Keith Newman, ‘Vile viral invaders,’ Home Technology, November 2002

22 Keith Newman, ‘Slam spam and viral invaders’, Home Technology, November 2003

23 Keith Newman, ‘Malware threatens personal data,’ Home Technology, November 2006

24 Keith Newman, ‘Protection options,’ Home Technology, November 2006

25 Keith Newman, ‘Beyond ad hoc bolt-on solutions,’ Telecommunications Review, May 2004

26 Ulrika Hedquist, ‘Hacked: 33 .nz web sites per month,’ Computerworld, 27 March 2006

27 Campbell Gardiner, ‘E-crime prosecutions present challenges,’ m-net, 10 July 2006

28 ‘Court gets tough with Internet fraud,’ NZCity, NewsTalkZB, 26 May 2006

29 Peter Griffiths and Reuters, ‘Internet gangs hiring students for cybercrime,’ NZ Herald, 11 December, 2006

30 Helen Twose, ‘Firms lose thousands as hacking nightmare continues,’ NZ Herald and NZPA, 16 February 2007

31 Juha Saarinen, ‘Kiwi sites defaced in new hacking spree,’ Computerworld, 7 May 2007

32 Jury finds half of hacking counts proven, Peter Griffin, NZ Herald, 18 July, 2007

33 Gregg Keizer, ‘Poisoned web sites soar six-fold, Sophos says,’ Computerworld, 27 July 2007

34 ‘Hackers compromise 10k sites, launch “phenomenal” attack,’ Computerworld US, 18 June 2007

35 Keith Newman, ‘Slam spam and viral invaders’

36 Paul Brislen, ‘InternetNZ grows fangs,’ Computerworld, 19 August 2003

37 Keith Newman, ‘Taking out the garbage,’ Home Technology, November 2004

38 James Ihaka, ‘Xtra faces lawsuits over email delays,’ NZ Herald, 16 December 2006

39 Jeremy Kirk in London, ‘Symantec: Adult spam down, image spam climbs,’ NZ Herald, 12 March 2007

40 Ken Lewis, ‘NZ passes anti-spam law,’ The Line, 28 February 2007

41 ‘Critics say spam law will achieve little,’ Dominion Post, 1 March 2007


43 InternetNZ press release: ‘ISP Spam Code of Practice launched,’ 5 September 2007

44 SMX press release: ‘Spam traffic hits record highs,’ September 2007

45 Sites offering illegal downloads of pirated software

46 Matthew Broersma, ‘Victoria Uni tech leads Internet attack study,’ Computerworld, 27 August 2007

47 Sources: Interviews with Peter Gutmann for the NZ Herald 18 June 1998, a further interview in June 2007, Gutmann’s own home page: and the Wikipedia article on him:

48 Greg Tourelle, ‘Police tackle Internet’s “wild west”,’, 24 September 2007

49 Kaon Technologies web site

50 Eric S. Raymond, ‘How To Become A Hacker FAQ,’ Hacker’s Jargon Dictionary, quoted in an article written for RMIT University, Crime and Information Technology lecture by Kelvin Wong, 20 March 2001. Source:


1 Telecom press release: ‘Making convergence a reality,’ 4 April 2003

2 Keith Newman, ‘Regions on wrong wide of digital divide,’ Telecommunications Review, July 2003

3 Keith Newman, ‘Broadband for the heartland,’ Home Technology, November 2002

4 Keith Newman, ‘Regions on wrong wide of digital divide,’ Telecommunications Review, July 2003

5 Peter Griffin, ‘Internet firms struggle with their Telecom bills,’ NZ Herald, 19 December 2001

6 Keith Newman, ‘ISP numbers down, subscribers boom,’ Telecommunications Review, February 2003


8 Clinton, Mississippi-based WorldCom fired its chief financial officer Scott Sullivan after discovering “improper accounting” of nearly US$4 billion in expenses. David Myers, senior vice president and controller, was allowed to resign. The company was in the process of laying off 17,000 staff, Computerworld, June 2002. Scott Sullivan, the former CFO of WorldCom, which in 2002 filed for the largest bankruptcy protection in US history, admitted in court to lying on more than a dozen occasions about the financial health of the company. Later, the former CEO of WorldCom, Bernard Ebbers, was found guilty of orchestrating the biggest fraud in American corporate history Press, ‘Ebbers found guilty,’ 17 March 2005

9 Heather Wright, ‘Voyager exits NZ consumer market,’ The Dominion, 6 December 2001

10 Peter Griffin, ‘Voyager helps Xtra sail through PC doldrums,’ NZ Herald, 20 February 2002

11 Owned by Dresden Equities representing Spencer family interests

12 Peter Griffin, ‘Shakedown means higher dial-up costs,’ NZ Herald, 15 January 2002

13 Ibid

14 ‘ISP squeezed between telcos and IT specialists,’ Telecommunications Review, February 2003

15 Neil Birss, ‘Sky TV stake does not stop Ihug from listing,’ The Press, 6 May 1999; and Paul Brislen, ‘Ihug heading for Aussie ownership’ Computerworld, 20 August 2003

16 Russell Brown, ‘Bandwidth bet to trim Ihug’s sails,’ Computerworld, 5 April 2000

17 Garry Sheeran, ‘Ihug forges ahead despite double jilting,’ Sunday Star Times, 21 May 2000

18 Rob O’Neill, ‘Foiled Ihug finds solace in Video Ezy,’ NZ Herald, 20 April 2000

19 Budde, New Zealand - ISP Market - Major Players, 8 October 2003

20 Peter Griffin, ‘Ihug sold for $82 million,’ NZ Herald, 16 September 2003

21 Peter Griffin, ‘Ihug boss leaves as company on a roll,’ NZ Herald, 3 March 2004

22 ‘Paradise and Ace up ante for entry level Internet access,’ Telecommunications Review, March 2003

23 Orcon’s history on its web site:

24 Keith Newman, ‘Dial-up not dead yet,’ Home Technology, November 2004

25 ‘ISP squeezed between telcos and IT specialists,’ Telecommunications Review, February 2003

26 ‘NZ climbs to eighth in Internet ranking,’ NZ Herald, 9 August 2006

27 Adam Gifford, ‘Call for Govt to open local loop,’ NZ Herald, 31 October 2000

28 Telecom press release: ‘Making convergence a reality,’ 4 April 2003

29 Keith Newman, ‘Broadband roll out hindered,’ iStart, July 2003

30 ‘Smaller telcos scramble for crumbs,’ Telecommunications Review. April 2003

31 Richard Wood, ‘Telecom ducks JetStream question,’ NZ Herald, 30 September 2003

32 Keith Newman, ‘True competition depends on scooping the loop,’ Telecommunications Review, September 2003

33 Peter Griffin, ‘Tough going for rivals plugging into local loop,’ NZ Herald, 20 September, 2003

34 Adam Gifford, ‘NZ losing race on broadband,’ NZ Herald, 25 November 2003

35 Keith Newman, ‘Fast surfing wave,’ Home Technology, November 2003

36 Keith Newman, ‘True competition depends on scooping the loop,’ Telecommunications Review, September 2003

37 ‘Regulator chooses softer option to boost broadband,’ Dominion Post, 23 December 2003

38 Keith Newman, ‘Time the Emperor got some clothes,’, July 2004

39 Keith Newman, ‘Broadband chokehold loosened,’ Home Technology, November 2004

40 Keith Newman, ‘Balls required for market,’ Telecommunications Review, June 2004

41 Keith Newman, ‘Broadband chokehold loosened,’ Home Technology, November 2004

42 Keith Newman, ‘256 is broadband,’ Telecommunications Review, July 2004

43 Telecom Press Release: ‘Telecom outlines new technology investment plans,’ July 2004

44 Keith Newman, ‘Broadband chokehold loosened,’ Home Technology, November 2004


1 Keith Newman, ‘Internet copies hit music industry: new format allows more plunder,’ 27 October, 1998

2 Tim Adams, ‘Days of future past,’ Observers & NZ Herald, 18 August 2007

3 Mark Mooradian, analyst with Jupiter communications, October 1998

4 Keith Newman, ‘Internet copies hit music industry: new format allows more plunder,’ 27 October 1998

5 Keith Newman, ‘MP3 Equipment blazes way to music for the taking on Net,’ NZ Herald, 22 June 1999

6 Keith Newman, ‘MP3 Equipment blazes way to music for the taking on Net’

7 Keith Newman, ‘Swamp music,’ Metro, April 2000

8 Keith Newman, ‘Swamp music’

9 Keith Newman, ‘Music Industry Gatecrashes MP3 Party,’ NZ Business Times, 26 October 2001

10 Keith Newman, ‘Nearly legal mobile music,’ Home Technology, November 2004

11 Keith Newman, ‘Legal downloads at last,’ Home Technology, November 2005

12 ‘Apple launches iTunes, on-line stores in New Zealand,’ AppleInsider, 5 December 2006

13 ‘Coketunes down but digital up,’ NZ Herald, 24 May 2007

14 Peter Griffin blog, ‘The charts go digital,’ NZ Herald web site

15 Paul Clearwater, ‘Txttunes puts a twist on on-line music market,’ 18 July 2007

16 ‘Music on discs,’ Sydney Morning Herald via NZ Songs newsgroup, 16 August 2007

17 ‘Walt Disney’s plans to boost CD sales,’ Reuters, 19 July 2007

18 Keith Newman, ‘MP3 players go for mass market,’ Home Technology, November 2006

19 ‘Select Committee considers Copyright,’ The Browser, InternetNZ, March 2007 20 Stephen Bell, ‘Digital copyright protection could lead to “culture editing”,’ Computerworld, 20 February 2007

21 Juha Saarinen, ‘Fears of “onerous” new copyright legislation emerge,’ Computerworld, 20 February, 2007

22 ‘Libraries may have to police new copyright law,’ Stephen Bell, Computerworld, 28 February 2007

23 Claire Trevett, ‘iPod law eases for music, not film,’ NZ Herald, 11 August 2007

24 InternetNZ media release ‘Failure to right Copyright wrongs,’ 30 July 2007

25 Keith Newman, ‘Saving our lives,’ Home Technology, November 2004

26 Martha McKenzie-Minifie, ‘Chasing the YouTube bandwagon,’ NZ Herald, 17 February 2007

27 ‘Kiwi MySpace site launched,’ TVNZ, 24 February 2007

28 Greg Meylan, ‘MySpace to launch New Zealand site,’ Sunday Star Times, 21 January 2007

29 Juha Saarinen, ‘Yahoo! + Telecom Xtra = True,’ Computerworld, 13 December 2006

30 Heather Havenstein, ‘Google’s YouTube unit dominates on-line video business,’ Computerworld, 19 July 2007

31 Danielle Murray, ‘Distilled from Public display of connection,’ Sunday Star Times, 19 August 2007

32 Peter Griffin, Blog: ‘Friends in high places,’ NZ Herald, 2 August 2007

33 Erin Parke, ‘YouTube unveils NZ only site,’, 24 October 2007

34 Tim O’Reilly, ‘What Is Web 2.0,’ 30 September 2005:

35 James Suriowecki’s 2004 bestseller The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many are Smarter than the Few uses examples from market behaviour, biology, artificial intelligence, military history, and political theory to argue that large groups of ‘ordinary’ people are usually smarter than an elite few, no matter how brilliant – better at solving problems, fostering innovation, coming to wise decisions, and predicting the future

36 US business and technology columnist Dan Gillmor, author of the We the Media: Grassroots Journalism by the People, for the People, 2004

37 Tim O’Reilly, ‘What Is Web 2.0’

38 Heather Havenstein, ‘New apps already coming for Google’s new OpenSocial,’ Computerword US, 5 November 2007

39 Ulrika Hedquist, ‘Web 2.0 is hot – both today and tomorrow,’ Computerworld, 22 May 2006

40 ‘Google Earth looks to the heavens,’ Reuters, 24 August 2007

41 A mash-up combines data from more than one source into a single integrated tool

42 A Web development technique for creating interactivity or to make Web pages feel more responsive by exchanging small amounts of data with the server behind the scenes to increase speed and functionality so the page doesn’t have to be reloaded each time the user requests a change.

43 Ulrika Hedquist, ‘Web 2.0 is hot – both today and tomorrow’

44 Samantha Gross, ‘Adventures in Second Life,’ Sun-Herald, 7 June 2007

45 ‘The Expanding Digital Universe: A Forecast of Worldwide Information Growth Through 2010:’

46 ‘Digital Information ballooning,’ Associated Press, 6 March 2007

47 Michael Liedtke, ‘Google opens up Gmail to everyone,’ Associated Press, 14 February, 2007

48 Jeremy Kirk, ‘Google vows to increase Gmail storage limit,’ Computerworld, 15 October 2007

49 ‘Digital camera growth betters expectation,’ NZPA, 15 August 2007

50 Business analyst Brion Feinberg, 12 September, 2007:

51 Louisa Gault, ‘The new Web etiquette – how to win friends and keep them on-line,’ Sunday Star Times, 19 August 2007

52 Marianne Betts, ‘Under 10s meet strangers on the Net,’ Dominion, 7 February 2002

53 Lois Watson, ‘Schools ban Bebo site,’ Sunday Star Times, 27 May 2007

54 ‘Boy tells court of YouTube beating,’ NZ Herald, 7 July 2007

55 Tony Smith, ‘Player banned after YouTube fight scene,’ The Press, 10 August 2007

56 ‘Video posting leads to theft conviction,’ NZ Herald, 11 August 2007

57 Patrick Gower, ‘Detective wants Augustine-case debate on Bebo shut down,’ NZ Herald, 15 September 2007 (distilled)

58 Patrick Gower, ‘Guns, drugs on Bebo’s dark side,’ NZ Herald, 15 September 2007

59 ‘Facebook Freddi wants to be your friend,’ Sydney Morning Herald, 16 August 2007

60 ‘MySpace detects 29,000 sex offenders,’ Reuters/NZ Herald, 25 July 2007


1 Michael Herman, ‘The high price of mobile,’ TUANZ Topics, January 2006

2 Ken Lewis, ‘Coming to a mobile near you: 100+ Megabits per second,’ The Line, 7 May 2007

3 Godzone, Bob Johnstone, November 1995

4 ‘Vodafone cellular phone firm to buy BellSouth NZ,’ Christchurch Press, 27 August 1998

5 Interview with Maurice Williamson, June 2007

6 ‘Telecom ponders digital network,’ Christchurch Press, 24 November 1998

7 Keith Newman, ‘TXT MSGZ RNWY SXS,’ Home Technology, November 2000

8 Third-generation mobile cellular network

9 Interview with Patrick Pilcher, October 2000

10 Keith Newman, ‘Turn-on for cellular citizens,’ NZ Business Times, 20 July 2001

11 Keith Newman, ‘Cellphones are sexy again,’ Home Technology, November 2002

12 Keith Newman, ‘Mobile phones with more,’ Home Technology, November 2003

13 Michael Herman, ‘The high price of mobile,’ TUANZ Topics, January 2006

14 Keith Newman, ‘Mobile momentum ramps up,’ Home Technology, November 2004

15 Peter Nowak, ‘Counting the cost of calling,’ NZ Herald, 24 June 2006

16 ‘Cutting the cord,’ NZ Herald, 29 April 2006

17 Paul Clearwater, ‘Telecom and Vodafone found to be misleading customers,’ The Line, 26 February 2007

18 Keith Newman, ‘Cell networks lift game,’ Home Technology, November 2006

19 Paul Clearwater, ‘Rev A rolls out in Wellington,’ The Line, 23 February 2007

20 ‘Cutting the cord,’ NZ Herald 29 April 2006

21 Tim Hunter, ‘Sorry you’re disconnected,’ Sunday Star Times, 22 April 2007

22 Paul Clearwater, ‘TelstraClear’s sale of cell sites under investigation,’ The Line, 28 May 2007

23 Paul Clearwater, ‘Speculation increases on TelstraClear’s sale of cell sites to Telecom,’ The Line, 20 July 2007

24 Paul Clearwater, ‘TelstraClear still in the mobile game,’ The Line, 3 July 2007

25 Juha Saarinen, ‘Users are losers in Vodafone-TCL feud,’ Computerworld, 10 July 2007

26 Joint media release via Scoop: ‘Third Mobile service provider coming soon,’ 13 August 2007

27 John Hoyle, ‘Telstra and Vodafone fight for 029 customers,’ Dominion Post, 14 August 2007

28 Matt Freeman, ‘Agency agreement was always going to leave customers with Vodafone,’ The Line, 15 August 2007

29 Paul Clearwater, ‘Vodafone NZ adds 24,000 customers in Q1, ARPU up,’ The Line, 20 July 2007

30 Gareth Vaughan, ‘Telecom to spend $300m on mobile network,’ Dominion Post, 8 June 2007

31 Paul Clearwater, ‘Vodafone to roll out WCDMA 900 network,’ The Line, 6 June 2007

32 Matt Freeman, ‘Billing system issues hold up Vodafone wholesale,’ The Line, 15 May 2007

33 Juha Saarinen, ‘Hybrid GSM/EVDO network for Telecom,’ CommsDay, 13 March 2007

34 ‘Telecom boosts its global mobile roaming power,’ NZPA-NZ Herald, 21 April 2007

35 High-speed Downlink Packet Access protocol

36 Matt Freeman, ‘Ratcliffe sites cost and speed of deployment behind reasons for lower grade GSM deployment,’ The Line, 5 July 2007

37 Helen Twose, ‘Telecom makes big call on network,’ NZ Herald, 9 June 2007

38 Matt Freeman, ‘Don’t lock my cellphone,’ The Line, 18 June 2007

39 Jon Hoyle, ‘User group welcomes Vodafone challenge,’ Dominion Post, 17 July 2007

40 Helen Twose, ‘Vodafone offers bundle of goodies,’ NZ Herald, 13 July 2007

41 David Cunliffe address to 8th Annual Telecommunications and ICT Summit: ‘Fast-forward to the Broadband future,’ 25 June 2007

42 Adam Gifford, ‘Cellphone deal adds to choice,’ NZ Herald, 3 December 2005

43 Tim Hunter, ‘Econet: We won’t play without a referee,’ Sunday Star Times, 21 May 2006

44 Natalie Apostolou, ‘Econet denies it has aborted NZ roll-out,’ m-net, 2 October 2006

45 Peter Griffin, ‘Econet ready to go mobile on NZ plan,’ NZ Herald, 17 March 2007

46 Paul Clearwater, ‘Econet calls for regulation around on-net pricing and spectrum,’ The Line, 22 March 2007

47 Helen Twose, ‘NZ Comms’ Maori investors up stake,’ NZ Herald, 27 July 2007

48 Juha Saarinen, ‘Triple deal tipped to deliver third mobile operator to NZ,’ Computerworld, 23 July 2007

49 Helen Twose, ‘More regulation needed in mobile market, says aspiring provider,’ NZ Herald, 6 September 2007

50 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Orcon delays mobile service till February,’ Dominion Post, 1 October 2007

51 Helen Twose, ‘Overseas cellphone deals leave us behind,’ NZ Herald, 25June 2007

52 Paul Clearwater, ‘Draft report on mobile services review out,’ The Line, 3 August 2007

53 Paul Clearwater, ‘Vodafone to offer 12 months free broadband,’ 10 August 2007

54 Helen Twose, ‘NZ slips in phone price rankings,’ NZ Herald, 8 September 2007

55 Ken Lewis, ‘Coming to a mobile near you: 100+ Megabits per second,’ The Line, 7 May 2007

56 Darren Greenwood, ‘Roaming blogger lands a whale of a data bill,’ Computerworld, 6 August 2007

57 Helen Twose, ‘Vodafone baulks at mobile market regulation,’ NZ Herald, 4 September 2007

58 No wires a no-brainer for corporate freedom Telecommunications Review, February 2006

59 Computerworld staff, ‘Auckland moves to deliver municipal Internet access,’ 19 June 2007

60 Rob O’Neill, ‘City broadband plans a step in right direction,’ Computerworld, 25 June 2007

61 Stephen Bell, ‘FX Networks plans domestic fibre-wireless trial,’ Computerworld, 21 August 2007

62 David Cunliffe address to 8th Annual Telecommunications and ICT Summit: ‘Fast-forward to the Broadband future,’ 25 June 2007

63 Helen Twose, ‘Wireless lifeline for country customers,’ NZ Herald, 6 June 2007

64 Matt Freeman, ‘ihug - the end of an iconic New Zealand brand,’ 20 August 2007

65 Paul Clearwater, ‘Swiftnet to start WiMAX trials within weeks,’ The Line, 21 September 2007

66 Paul Clearwater, ‘Wireless the way for rural New Zealand,’ The Line, 21 September 2007

67 Press release: ‘Telco gets switched on to tackle Telecom,’ 23 January 2007

68 Gareth Vaughan, ‘Orcon sale nets its founder $19 million,’ Dominion Post, 12 June 2007

69 Paul Clearwater, ‘Kordia’s new metro Wi-Fi network gets the green light,’ The Line, 6 September 2007

70 Peter Griffin, ‘CallPlus boss in it for love, not money,’ NZ Herald, 26 May 2007

71 Paul Clearwater, ‘CallPlus breaks into four units to target Telecom’s market share,’ The Line, 23 May 2007

72 Peter Griffin, ‘CallPlus still on track despite delay,’ NZ Herald, 14 July 2007



2 Cunliffe press release and MED briefing papers, October 2004

3 Keith Newman, ‘Time the Emperor got some clothes,’ magazine, July 2004

4 Macaulay was elected as president of InternetNZ in July 2007

5 Ibid

6 Digital Strategy document:

7 Randal Jackson, ‘Government’s digital strategy is “operationally broke”,’ Computerworld, 30 January 2007

8 Digital Strategy update, MED Newsletter, May 2007

9 Although a footnote on page 30 of the Digital Strategy document does state that “by current standards a ‘fast’ connection implies a speed faster than 5Mbps”

10 Jon Hoyle, ‘Broadband connection growth starts to slow,’ Dominion Post, 3 August 2007

11 Ernie Newman, chief executive, TUANZ, Address to Telecommunications Summit, Auckland, 25 June 2007, paraphrased for September 2007 feature

12 Keith Newman, ‘Strategy shifts sought,’ magazine, September 2007


14 Fast-forward to the Broadband future, David Cunliffe address to 8th Annual Telecommunications and ICT Summit, 25 June 2007

15 The draft Digital Content Strategy discussion document:

16 Budget 2007: Funding support for digital archives, Press Release: New Zealand Government Hon Judith Tizard Minister Responsible for Archives New Zealand, 17 May 2007

17 Tangata whenua is used here to broadly describe the descendents of the indigenous people(s) of Aotearoa – it includes groupings such as whanau, hapu, iwi, Maori, etc

18 Kamira says the term ‘principles of the Treaty’ is a softer version of what was in the original Treaty of Waitangi. It was first used in Matiu Rata’s Treaty of Waitangi Bill introduced into the House in November 1974. Rata said its purpose was to provide for the observation and confirmation of the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi. However Fulbright Scholar Elizabeth Rata says the idea began as a legal reference embedded in law after a meeting in 1986 between Sir Hepi Te Heuheu, paramount chief of Ngati Tuwharetoa, and the deputy prime minister at the time, Sir Geoffrey Palmer. ‘Tribal leaders had been saying the transfer of Crown assets to new state-owned enterprises might infringe Maori rights. Palmer went to see Sir Hepi, who told him Maori concerns would disappear if the new law said: “Nothing in this act shall permit the Crown to act in a manner that is inconsistent with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi.”’ Rata quoted in Ratana Revisited, Newman, Reed, 2006

19 Collective ‘ownership’ of content is the combined knowledge that is held and passed down to generations by whanau and hapu groups, for example. There is usually no legal title or copyright to the knowledge making it particularly vulnerable to misappropriation or exploitation by the commercial sector both in Aotearoa and overseas

20 Kaitiakitanga can be loosely defined as inter-generational guardianship

21 ‘Considerations regarding Tangata Whenua & the Treaty: The New Zealand Digital Strategy & the Draft Content Strategy,’ Robyn Kamira (Te Rarawa Te Aupouri), March 2007


23 Ken Lewis, ‘Creative Commons licences available for New Zealand soon,’ Telecommunications Review, 6 August 2007

24 Ken Lewis, ‘New Web standards for Public Service,’ The Line, 22 March 2007

25 Stephen Bell, ‘PAL coming up the home stretch at last,’ Computerworld, 24 May 2007

26 Rob O’Neill, ‘SSC defends $25 million surge in ICT spending,’ Computerworld, 11 June 2007

27 Paul Clearwater, ‘Police and DIA join GSN,’ The Line, 25 October 2007

28 Keith Newman, ‘Government superhighway takes shape,’ Telecommunications Review, June 2007

29 Keith Newman, ‘Government superhighway takes shape’


31 David Cunliffe, Address to the Auckland Mayoral Forum: ‘Digital Strategy and Local Government,’ 15 July 2005

32 Local Government Minister Mark Burton speech to Local Authorities Conference in Dunedin, July 2007

33 2006 Computerworld Award for Excellence in the Use of IT in Government

34 2005 Computerworld Award for Excellence in the Use of IT in Government

35 2005 BearingPoint Innovation Awards Public Service Category Winner

36 Darren Greenwood, ‘The tail wags the dog in government ICT,’ Computerworld, 20 July 2007

37 2006 Computerworld Award for Excellence in the Use of IT for Customer Service

38 Williamson’s quotes and comments are distilled from an email interview with Keith Newman, his postings on his own sites: and and an interview at the egov blog site:, 20 January 2007


40 Parliamentary press release, 17 July 2007

41 ‘TV networks will ignore MPs’ satire rule,’ NZ Herald, NZPA, 6 July 2007

42 Kay Blundell, ‘Kiwi made campaign “two faced”,’ Dominion Post, 26 June 2007

43 David Cunliffe address to 8th Annual Telecommunications and ICT Summit: ‘Fast-forward to the broadband future,’ 25 June 2007

44 See footnote 38


1 Marta Steeman, ‘Telecom threat to Government upsets Telstra,’ The Press, 9 December 2005

2 Gareth Morgan, ‘Telecom acts like a monster,’ Morgan On Money, The Press, 17 December 2005

3 Aust turns to network lobbying,” The Press, 13 December 2005

4 Murray Horton, ‘Foreign Control Watchdog, Telecom Drops Its Bundle,’ August 2006:

5 Tim Hunter, ‘Data block choking film growth,’ Sunday Star Times, 5 June 2005

6 Peter Nowak, ‘High-wire act for economy,’ NZ Herald, 26 June 2005

7 Keith Newman, ‘Cure for communications constipation,’ Investigate magazine, July 2006

8 Juha Saarinen, ‘Telco commissioner gives TelstraClear “unconstrained broadband”,’ Computerworld, 13 October 2005

9 Keith Newman, ‘Cure for communications constipation,’ Investigate magazine, July 2006

10 Russell Brown, ‘The elephant in the living-room: What to do about Telecom?,’ Listener, 4 February 2006

11 Adrian Bathgate, ‘ISPs reject Telecom’s terms,’ The Press, 10 March 2006

12 Michael Herman, ‘Govt vows action on Internet,’ The Press, 21 February 06

13 Peter Nowak, ‘Labour’s aim: fast cheap Internet,’ NZ Herald, 12 September 2005

14 John Minto column, ‘Telecom’s cynical manipulation a tragedy for us all,’ The Press, 15 May 2006

15 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘NZ needs $1.5b to replace copper cables,’ Dominion Post, 18 September 2006

16 Keith Newman, ‘Cure for communications constipation,’ Investigate magazine, July 2006

17 Ibid

18 Peter Griffin, ‘Ferrit unspectacular in its debut,’ NZ Herald, 10 February 2006

19 John Drinnan quoting Ferrit boss Ralph Brayham: ‘Telecom promotes mall rat,’ NZ Herald, 16 December 2006

20 Peter Griffin, ‘Ferrit unspectacular in its debut,’ NZ Herald, 10 February 2006

21 John Drinnan, ‘Telecom’s mall rat,’ NZ Herald, 16 December 2006

22 ‘Trade Me sold for $700m,’ NZ Herald, 6 March 2006

23 Ulrika Hedquist, ‘e-Xmas shopping takes off,’ Computerworld, 7 February 2006

24 Theresa Gattung admitting the limited options ahead in the The Press, 28 June 2006

25 Keith Newman, ‘Scooping the loop: The challenges of unbundling,’ Telecommunications Review, 6 June 2006

26 Ibid

27 DSLAM: Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexor’s at roadside cabinets or telephone exchanges which route traffic from the home or business line to its intended destination.

28 Paul Brislen, ‘Telecom to offer 15Mbit/s over copper – roll-out begins this year,’ Computerworld, 21 February 2005

29 Foot off broadband hose, Home Technology, November 2006

30 Jenny Keown, ‘Blazing broadband is blast from past,’ NZ Herald, 20 October 2006

31 Keith Newman, ‘Co-opetition only way forward for unbundled wholesaling,’ Telecommunications Review, November 2006

32 Alcatel ended up purchasing Lucent and Ericsson acquired Marconi during 2006

33 Paul Brislen, ‘Ihug flogs off satellite service,’ Computerworld, 15 February 2005

34 Juha Saarinen, ‘Wired Country sold to Compass Communications,’ Computerworld, 12 October 2005

35 Juha Saarinen, ‘Woosh buys ISP,’ Computerworld, 24 July 2006

36 Keith Newman, ‘Cure for communications constipation,’ Investigate magazine, July 2006

37 Martha McKenzie-Minifie, ‘Ihug sale likely to spark more ISP consolidation,’ NZ Herald, 21 July 2006

38 Peter Griffin, ‘Little relief for broadband subscribers,’ NZ Herald, 20 January 2007

39 ‘Telecom gearing for aggressive market,’ Telecommunications Review, November 2006

40 Keith Newman, ‘Co-opetition only way forward for unbundled wholesaling,’ Telecommunications Review, November 2006

41 Jenny Keown, ‘Internet blackouts cost ISPs millions,’ NZ Herald, 27 November 2006

42 Jenny Keown ‘Telecom blames broadband providers,’ The Browser, 4 December 2006

43 ‘InternetNZ plays critical part in regulatory change,’ The Browser, InternetNZ News, December 2006

44 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘NZ needs $1.5b to replace copper cables’

45 Media release: ‘InternetNZ rebuts Telecom comments on operational separation,’ 5 October 2006

46 Ispanz press release: ‘ISPs warn not to be fooled by Telecom’s claims,’ 5 October 2006

47 ‘InternetNZ plays critical part in regulatory change,’ The Browser, InternetNZ News, December 2006

48 Sources: Telecom ordered to open up lines, Dominion Post, 13 ‘Cunliffe promises “all you can eat broadband” with new law’, Juha Saarinen, Computerworld, 13 December 2006

49 Jenny Keown, ‘Telecom split in six months, Cunliffe says,’ NZ Herald, 14 December 2006

50 Juha Saarinen, ‘Freeth’s shock email to staff: We are on a trajectory to disaster,’ The Line, 21 December, 2006

51 Richard Hulse, ‘WIX: a Distributed Internet Exchange,’ Linux Journal, 26 May 2005

52 The Peering debate, Discussion, Telecommunications Review, June-July 2004

53 Paul Clearwater, ‘ISPANZ calls for rethink on peering,’ The Line, 2 March 2007

54 Matt Freeman, ‘Telecom leans towards local peering,’ The Line, 8 March 2007


56 Rob O’Neill, ‘De-peering is costing New Zealand dearly,’ Computerworld,12 March 2007

57 David Diprose comment piece, ‘The wacky, weird world of not peering,’ Computerworld, 22 March 2007

58 The Browser, ‘Peering at peering,’ InternetNZ, March 2007

59 Matt Freeman, ‘Telecom takes one small step towards peering,’ The Line, 21 May 2007

60 Juha Saarinen, ‘Telecom’s regional peering point plan gets thumbs-up,’ Computerworld, 24 July 2007

61 Helen Twose, ‘Plan will speed up Internet traffic,’ NZ Herald, 30 July 2007

62 Adam Bennett, ‘TeamTalk splashes out on majority stake in CityLink,’ NZ Herald, 25 November 2006

63 Stephen Bell, ‘TeamTalk buys CityLink,’ Computerworld, 24 November 2006


1 Rebecca Palmer, ‘Emergency wards “already in disaster mode”,’ Dominion Post, 6 August 2007

2 Carol du Chateau, ‘Emergency department hell,’ NZ Herald, 30 June 2007

3 Press release, Hon Tony Ryall, MP, ‘Enrolled nurses under threat from Labour,’ 24 August 2007

4 Rebecca Palmer, ‘Hundreds more surgeons needed,’ Dominion Post, 23 August 2007

5 Auckland Hospital accepts blame,’ TVNZ, 1 May 2007

6 Press release, Hon Tony Ryall, MP, ‘Labour ignores emergency department crisis,’ 23 August 2007

7 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Patient barcodes all but certain,’ Dominion Post, 20 August 2007

8 Ministry of Health, ‘From strategy to reality: the WAVE project,’ report of the WAVE Advisory Board to the Director-General of Health, Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health; 2001.

9 Office of the Auditor General. Progress with priorities for health information management and Information technology. 2006. Available at

10 Ray Delany, Management Consultant, ‘The National Health Information System in New Zealand,’ 1 June 2006

11 An internal secure Internet-style network

12 Stephen Bell, ‘Health pushes for broadband,’ Computerworld, 21 May 2007

13 Orion Health signed a contract for its 140th Rhapsody clinical workflow and integration engine site in North America at the end of October 2007 when it won a deal with Marion General Hospital, Indiana. Orion’s has 215 sites such sites worldwide, including the Centres for Disease Control, the US Department of Agriculture, Central Washington Hospital, and New York State Department of Health. Orion has 65 staff in its Santa Monica office, planned to open a second US office in Boston. Orion made the North American list of the top 100 health care IT providers for the second year in a row. Source: Ulrika Hedquist, ‘Orion wins 140th US contract,’ Computerworld, 25 October 2007

14 Keith Newman, ‘Web innovation to unlock access to critical patient data,’ m-net, 12 June 2006

15 Martin Johnson, ‘Wired for saving lives,’ NZ Herald, 25 August 2007

16 Darren Greenwood, ‘Health looks to ICT to deliver better patient care,’ Computerworld, 28 June 2007

17 Rebecca Palmer, ‘Medical X-rays and scans go digital,’ Dominion Post, 7 July 2007

18 Paraphrased examples from the Primary Care Strategy goals: care

19 care

20 Press release, Ryall, Tony, MP, ‘Bureaucratic infighting costing patients,’ 22 October 2007

21 2007 Global Internet - Volume 1 – ‘Web 2 Revives Internet Economy,’ Paul Budde Communications, October 2007

22 Ernie Newman, chief executive, TUANZ, Address to Telecommunications Summit, Auckland, 25 June 2007

23 Keith Newman, ‘Exczel owners get warranty offer,’ Computerworld, 23 January 1989

24 Crocombe, Enright, & Porter, 1991

25 ‘Technology: flogging a dead horse or beating the odds?,’ Brent Mawson, Head of Centre, Technology Education, Auckland College of Education (1998)

26 Dr Maris O’Rourke, Secretary for Education, Technology in the New Zealand Curriculum foreword 1995

27 Technology in the New Zealand Curriculum, Learning Media, 1995

28 Keith Newman, ‘Schools flunk technology,’ Metro, June 1998

29 Ibid

30 ‘ImpacT 2001: Strategies for Learning with Information Technology in Schools,’ A Submission to the New Zealand Government by the Minister for Information Technology’s Information Technology Advisory Group 1998

31 Keith Newman, ‘Schools flunk technology’

32 ‘The Role of Technology Education in New Zealand’s Future Prosperity,’ IPENZ July 2001

33 Futurist lifestyles editor David Pearce Snyder in Auckland, New Zealand for the Ninth International Conference on Thinking, January 2001

34 ‘Enabling the 21st Century Learner - An e-Learning Action Plan for Schools 2006–2010,’ Ministry of Education, 2006 Learning Media Limited:

35 School ICT Network Infrastructure Upgrade Project, Ministry of Education

36 Government case study, 11 January 2006:

37 ‘Last Probe School gets connected,’ Interface, July 2007



40 NZPA, ‘Schools given $11.1m for e-learning,’ 18 September 2007

41 Shelley Grell, ‘“The Loop,” Nelson, New Zealand – an educational community open-access fibre network,’, 16 June 2006


43 ‘Loop Award ‘Just the Beginning’ for NMIT:’, 8 August 2007

44 Ken Lewis, ‘Wellington Loop Project gets $400k kick-start,’ The Line, 2 August 2007

45 Cited as one of training’s top 10 visionaries by Training magazine

46 Greg Adams, ‘Involving students in everything we do,’ Interface magazine, August 2007

47 Martha McKenzie-Minifie, ‘$54 million more for “free schools,”’ NZ Herald, 1 September 2007

48 Jody O’Callaghan, ‘Decile change rocks school,’ Manawatu Standard, 19 October 2007


1 Investigate magazine, June 2006

2 Ovum based on Ofcom 2007 communication report, 24 August 2007

3 Article by Keith Newman in NZ Herald, 27 January 1998

4 Keith Newman, ‘Broadcasters call for digital TV free up,’ NZ Herald, 30 July 1998

5 Keith Newman interview with Nick Wood, 1999

6 Ihug press release: Internet Now Available on TV,’ 20 November 2000

7 Keith Newman, ‘Unbundling essential,’ Telecommunications Review, June 2004

8 Keith Newman, ‘Broadband charging stifles rich content delivery,’ Telecommunications Review, April 2004

9 Keith Newman, ‘Video over IP looks for a network,’ Telecommunications Review, April 2004

10 Keith Newman, ‘Broadband charging stifles rich content delivery’

11 Keith Newman, ‘Video over IP looks for a network,’ Telecommunications Review, April 2004

12 Ibid

13 Keith Newman, ‘Cure for communications constipation,’ Investigate magazine, July 2006

14 Keith Newman, ‘Video over IP looks for a network’

15 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Telecom places TV revolution on pause,’ Dominion Post, 16 July 2007

16 Keith Newman, ‘Broadband charging stifles rich content delivery’

17 ‘IP on TV brings channel challenge,’ (professional engineers) magazine, November 2005

18 Bruce Wallace, executive director of the NZ Broadcasters’ Council, died in July 2007, a few days after his 60th birthday. He was a leader in the golden years of TV current affairs, a published author and advocate for getting a fair deal for the free-to-air channels to transition into the digital realm for many years

19 Keith Newman, ‘Video over IP looks for a network’

20 SPADA’s Response to Ministry of Culture and Heritage (MCH) Discussion Paper: Analogue Switch-Off (ASO): Issues for Consideration, 21 January 2007

21 Keith Newman, ‘Flat screen TVs take over,’ Home Technology, November 2006

22 Microsoft is believed to have 82 percent of the world browser market. The balance is largely made up of Mozilla’s Firefox which has also had a major makeover (2006)

23 Keith Newman, ‘Cure for communications constipation,’ Investigate magazine, July 2006

24 Broadcasting Minister Steve Maharey’s speech notes for the MediaNZ Conference, Victoria University, 12 February 2007

25 Ibid

26 Paul Clearwater, ‘Over 10,000 customers logging on to SKY Mobile TV,’ The Line, 23 February 2007

27 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Adult TV channel on phones,’ Dominion Post, 1 September 2007

28 Ken Lewis, ‘TVNZ quietly launches Web-based television offering,’ The Line, 21 March 2007

29 Steve Deane, ‘‘‘Future TV’ “angers viewers”,” NZ Herald, 28 April 2007

30 Peter Griffin, ‘Set-top box firms launch price war for Freeview dollar,’ NZ Herald, 28 April 2007

31 Hon Steve Maharey, ‘Increase in local TV content builds national identity,’ 8 May 2007

32 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘‘Must carry’ rules may be imposed on Sky TV,’ Dominion Post, 4 June 2007

33 TVNZ press release: ‘TVNZ opens YouTube channel,’ 25 June 2007

34 Jonathan Coleman, National Party broadcasting spokesman, ‘Maharey rearranges the deck chairs,’ 5 July 2007

35 Jonathan Coleman, ‘Give us the numbers on Freeview,’ 6 July 2007

36 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Kordia helps Triangle TV get on to Freeview,’ Dominion Post, 23 July 2007

37 ‘Freeview announces numbers,’ TVNZ, 13 August 2007. Freeview announced it had hit 100,000 customers 0n 16 April 2008

38 Maggie McNaughton, ‘Reruns star in TVNZ’s digital diet,’ NZ Herald, 17 July 2007

39 Telstra Saturn, press release, ‘InHome TV to get 15 new channels,’ 23 August 2007

40 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Broadcasters cast doubt on channel sharing,’ Dominion Post, 3 September 2007

41 Paul Norris joined the NZBS as Head of School in September 1996, after working for many years as a television journalist and executive. He worked for BBC News and Current Affairs in London as a reporter, producer, and programme editor before returning to New Zealand in 1987 to join TVNZ as the company prepared for deregulation and competition. He was director of news and current affairs from 1987 to 1994, and then as group director until 1996.

42 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Telecom places TV revolution on pause,’ Dominion Post, 16 July 2007

43 Ulrika Hedquist, ‘SkyTV upgrades to high definition,’ Computerworld, 6 November 2007

44 Stephen Bell, ‘High definition or long life – your digital TV choice,’ Computerworld, 6 September 2007

45 Ernie Newman, chief executive, TUANZ, Address to Telecommunications Summit, Auckland, 25 June 2007

46 Stephen Bell ‘Telecom promises IPTV in 2009, but rivals say they can deliver it now,’ Computerworld, 11 September 2007

47 Jake Coyle, ‘Turn On the New Tube,’ Tech News World, 2 September 2007

48 Michael Field, ‘Fewer viewers blamed for TVNZ loss,’ Dominion Post, 11 September 2007


1 Colin Beardon, Computer Culture, the information revolution in New Zealand, Reed Methuen, 1985 p25

2 Ernie Newman, chief executive, TUANZ, address to Telecommunications Summit, Auckland, 25 June 2007

3 David Cunliffe address to 8th Annual Telecommunications and ICT Summit: ‘Fast-forward to the Broadband future,’ 25 June 2007

4 Vivienne Smith, Reining in the Dinosaur - the remarkable turnaround of New Zealand Post, New Zealand Post, 1997 pp45–46

5 Tim Hunter, ‘Split Telecom twice as nice for the market,’ Sunday Star Times, 18 March 2007

6 Telecom 2006 annual report

7 Helen Twose, ‘Regulation now a smaller barrier,’ NZ Herald, 3 August 2007

8 Matt Freeman, ‘ISPs rot as time ticks,’ The Line, 26 February 2007

9 Telecom press release: ‘Adjustment to monthly phone charges,’ 15 January 2007

10 ‘Telecom rental raise condemned,’ Christchurch Press, 17 January 2007

11 Matt Freeman, ‘Industry split on NDSL and LLU,’ The Line, 21 February 2007

12 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Unbundle, then invest – Tuanz,’ Dominion Post, 5 February 2007

13 Jenny Keown, ‘Numbers game no fun for Telecom,’ NZ Herald, 19 February 2007

14 Geoff Bascand, Government Statistician, August 2007

15 InternetNZ, press release, 7 March 2007

16 Paul Easton, ‘Cost of NZ phones among worst in the world,’ Dominion Post, 19 March 2007

17 InternetNZ media release: ‘Room for improvement in OECD ranking,’ 6 November 2007

18 Paul Clearwater, ‘NZ moves up in OECD broadband stats,’ The Line, 6 November 2007

19 InternetNZ media release: ‘Room for improvement in OECD ranking,’ 6 November 2007

20 Emma Page, ‘Customers byte back,’ Sunday Star Times, 4 February 2007

21 Ian Steward, ‘Supreme Ass Award goes to Xtra broadband,’ The Press, 1 February 2007

22 Paul Clearwater, ‘Telecom to refund Go Large customers,’ The Line, 22 February 2007

23 ‘Supermarket earns dubious honour,’ Dominion Post, 22 March 2007

24 Jenny Keown, ‘Minister’s plan spells it out on Telecom split,’ NZ Herald, 7 April 2007

25 Paul Clearwater, ‘Telecom releases initial response to government’s separation model,’ The Line, 13 April 2007

26 Jenny Keown, ‘Telecom pleads for industry backing,’ NZ Herald, 14 April 2007

27 Tim Hunter, ‘Telecom strikes back,’ Sunday Star Times, 29 April 2007

28 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Southern Cross Cable capacity to double,’ Dominion Post, 24 August 2007

29 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Australia to lay own broadband links to US,’ Dominion Post, 2 April 2007

30 Paul Clearwater, ‘US-based storm reduces Telecom’s international capacity by 50%,’ The Line, 5 December 2007

31 Sue Allen, ‘Telecom looks at deal for network,’ Dominion Post, 26 March 2007

32 Paul Clearwater, ‘Telecom stranded by industry comments on structural separation,’ The Line, 16 May 2007

33 ‘InternetNZ addresses Telecom proposal,’ The Browser, InternetNZ, May 2007

34 ‘Gattung’s final year nets her $5.4m,’ The Press, 6 September 2007

35 Telecom’s way ahead,’ Editorial, The Press, 6 June 2006

36 Chris Barton, ‘Telecom cabal leaves legacy we all have to suffer,’ NZ Herald, 8 February 2007

37 It is understood that the 167,421 shares, which were valued at $4.50 each, were accumulated over Gattung’s eight-year reign at the top of Telecom. Source: Paul Clearwater, ‘Gattung sells $770,000 of Telecom shares, The Line, 16 October 2007

38 Michael Sainsbury, ‘New TNZ chief likes tone of BT split,’, 29 June 2007

39 Jon Hoyle, ‘Telecom ‘split’ over handling regulation,’ Dominion Post, 27 August 2007

40 ‘Telecom says Web-mail problem is fixed,’ NZPA, 23 August 2007

41 ‘Anger follows mayhem after Bubble bursts,’ Editorial, NZ Herald, 25 August 2007

42 Helen Twose and NZPA, ‘Another Telecom executive quits before new boss arrives,’ 15 September 2007

43 Creative licence with comments form Orcon general manager of operations Scott Bartlett

44 Helen Twose, ‘It’s coming together nicely,’ NZ Herald, 5 May 2007

45 Paul Clearwater, ‘TelstraClear sides with Telecom on investment issue,’ The Line, 14 May 2007

46 James Weir, ‘Broadband needs state assistance – Gattung,’ Dominion Post, 1 June 2007

47 Paul Clearwater, ‘Telecom reveals plans for LLU and co-location roll-out,’ The Line, 13 June 2007

48 Simon Hendery, ‘Unbundling at a snail’s pace,’ NZ Herald, 21 June 2007

49 Paul Clearwater, ‘Cunliffe softens stance on structural separation,’ The Line, 5 July 2007

50 Helen Twose, ‘Customers to get naked in September,’ NZ Herald, July 12 2007

51 Promo for TUANZ ICT Skills Shortage Conference, November 2007

52 Reuben Schwarz, ‘Workforce must triple, warns project head,’ Dominion-Post, 21 November 2005

53 IPENZ press release: ‘Budget 2007 will heighten grave skilled engineer shortages,’ 17 May 2007

54 ‘11,000 more IT industry jobs by 2011,’ Dominion Post, 19 October 2007

55 Simon McCallum, Lecturer, Department of Computer Science, University of Otago: ‘Computer Science Shortage,’ October 2006:

56 A Maori words suggesting, prestige, influence, authority, status

57 Paul Brislen, ‘ICT has no mana’: Biggs,’ Computerworld, 23 October 2006

58 Sandra Rossi, ‘Australian ICT industry shares NZ’s skills pain,’ Computerworld, 23 July 2007

59 Dan Eaton, ‘Tight jobs market gives worker edge,’ The Press, 28 August 2007

60 John Dixon in Melbourne, ‘Kiwis top Australia’s immigration stats,’ NBR, 25 September 2007

61 Lockwood Smith, National Party immigration spokesman: ‘Exodus to Australia worst since 2001,’ 21 September 2007

62 Rob O’Neill, ‘Broadband bidding war not on cards for NZ, says Key,’ Computerworld, 30 July 2007

63 Three months later Hubbard lost the 2007 Auckland mayoralty election to John Banks

64 Alanah May Eriksen, ‘I accuse you: Mayor scolds Telecom over net blackspot,’ NZ Herald, 26 July 2007

65 Rob O’Neill, ‘Telecom rejects TUANZ claim of gross lack of investment,’ Computerworld, 18 July 2007

66 Peter Griffin and Helen Twose, ‘NZ’s wealthy telcos stingy on investment,’ NZ Herald, 19 July 2007

67 Matt Freeman, ‘Telecom PSTN migration to next-gen to be one of first in the world,’ The Line, 2 July 2007

68 ‘Govt to review Telecom’s Kiwi Share obligations,’ NZ Herald, 16 January 2007

69 David Cunliffe address to 8th Annual Telecommunications and ICT Summit: ‘Fast-forward to the Broadband future,’ 25 June 2007

70 Govt to review Telecom’s Kiwi Share obligations,’ NZ Herald, 16 January 2007

71 Rob O’Neill, ‘Telecom ponders hand-me-down broadband,’ Computerworld, 26 February 2007

72 Previous years TSO determinations were $66 million (2001/2002) and $57 million (2002/2003)

73 Matt Freeman, ‘TSO cost comes in at $63.8m,’ The Line, 26 March 2007

74 Matt Freeman, ‘We can reach 70% of TSO ‘non-viable’ customers, today: Vodafone,’ The Line, 22 June 2007

75 Paul Clearwater, ‘Carriers pay $66,501 daily to subsidise Telecom under TSO – TUANZ,’ The Line, 9 July 2007

76 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Cunliffe rules out rural line hike,’ Dominion Post, 13 August 2007

77 Jon Hoyle, ‘Groups applaud rural phone line blueprint,’ Dominion Post, 22 August 2007

78 Paul Clearwater, ‘Telecom questions LLU de-averaging,’ The Line, 19 September 2007

79 Very high speed digital subscriber line

80 Ken Lewis, ‘TelstraClear wins exclusive rights to Pegasus Town,’ The Line, 27 March 2007

81 Paul Clearwater, ‘WorldxChange to run services over Telecom fibre network,’ The Line, 29 November 2007

82 Paul Clearwater, ‘New bitstream access price met by disappointment,’ The Line, 11 July 2007

83 ‘ISPs disappointed by access fee fall,’ Dominion Post, 12 July 2007

84 InternetNZ, press release, 31 July 2007

85 Helen Twose, ‘Access price pleases Telecom rivals,’ NZ Herald, 1 August 2007

86 Helen Twose, ‘Telecom’s great unbundling exercise finally gets under way,’ NZ Herald, 10 August 2007

87 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Kordia to borrow an extra $38m for broadband push,’ Dominion Post, 15 October 2007

88 Rob O’Neill, ‘Unseemly rush to claim unbundling firsts,’ Computerworld, 11 August 2007

89 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Aging gear may cause more phone failures,’ Dominion Post, 4 September 2007

90 Jon Hoyle, ‘Telcos seeking faster access,’ Dominion Post, 4 September 2007

91 Jon Hoyle, ‘Telecom under pressure over timetable,’ Dominion Post, 24 September 2007

92 Paul Clearwater, ‘Orcon’s VoIP delay a mayday?,’ The Line, 28 September 2007

93 Media release: ‘InternetNZ welcomes Operational Separation Determination,’ 26 September 2007

94 Paul Clearwater, ‘Operational separation: the regulation ride nears its end,’ The Line, 26 September 2007

95 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Telecom prepares to sell phone network,’ Dominion Post, 26 September 2007

96 First stated on 3 August when Telecom’s 2006/07 result was published

97 Telecom press release: ‘Response to determination on operational separation,’ 26 September 2007

98 Helen Twose, ‘Telecom okay with three-way division,’ NZ Herald, 27 September 2007

99 Telecom financial results, 3 August 2007

100 Helen Twose, ‘We won’t sell network, says Reynolds,’ NZ Herald, 5 October 2007

101 Helen Twose, ‘Been there, done that, it’s OK,’ NZ Herald, 6 October 2007

102 Jon Hoyle, ‘Telecom boss’s first job is repairs,’ Dominion Post, 2 October 2007

103 ‘Behind the Walls & Inside the Minds of Kiwi Companies,’ compiled in collaboration with the EMA (formerly the Northern Employers and Manufacturers Association) and the University of Auckland

104 Stephen Bell, ‘Telecoms costs and continuity worry Kiwi companies,’ Computerworld, 2 November 2007

105 Paul Clearwater, ‘Telecom power shortage questioned,’ The Line, 5 November 2007

106 Stephen Bell, ‘Database changes behind emergency response failure,’ Computerworld, 21 November 2007

107 John Hartevelt, ‘Telecom customers unhappy,’ The Press, 6 November 2007

108 InternetNZ press release: ‘Local Loop Prices Disappoint,’ 7 November 2007

109 Orcon media release: ‘UCLL determination puts big question mark around investment,’ 7 November 2007

110 Paul Clearwater, ‘Competitors bowled over by Telecom’s cabinetisaton plans,’ The Line, 21 November 2007

111 BuddeCom press release: ‘Progress at the expense of competition’ 22 November 2007


113 Work and Income New Zealand

114 Stephen Bell, ‘$15bn ICT industry doesn’t need govt ‘benefit,’ says blogger,’ Computerworld, 1 August 2007

115 2005 HiGrowth ‘Profile of the New Zealand ICT Sector Survey,’ which surveyed 400 ICT companies with a million dollars plus revenues with a view to mapping the dynamics of the sector

116 The ugliest term possible to describe the labour force or in this case skilled individuals

117 Computerworld staff, ‘NZ ranks well behind leaders in IT competitiveness,’ 16 August 2007

118 HiGrowth release: ‘Connecting… to our digital future,’ 14th September

119 Paul Clearwater, ‘Government looks to cut funding for ICT NZ/Hi Growth, plans formation of new umbrella group,’ The Line, 15 November 2007

120 Paul Clearwater, ‘Government’s actions in forming new ICT group questioned,’ The Line, 20 November 2007

121 Stephen Bell, ‘Cabinet paper blunder exposes ICT-NZ failure,’ Computerworld, 23 November 2007

122 Stephen Bell, ‘Industry should define ICT strategy, says Blackham,’ Computerworld, 22 November 2007

123 Stephen Bell, ‘40% of New Zealand Fast 50 driven by ICT,’ Computerworld, 15 November 2007

124 Paul Clearwater, ‘ICT groups meet to discuss forming new umbrella body,’ The Line, 27 November 2007


1 Giving Effect to the Five Themes, Cabinet Policy Committee, 21 August 2006




5 Vanessa Clark, Total Telecom News, 25 November 1999

6 Keith Newman, ‘The Next Merciless Leap,’ MIS Magazine, September 2001

7 Edited excerpts from Collaborating with Speed, 7 October 2002:

8 Interview with Neil James, 2001

9 Keith Newman, ‘Educating for Efficiency, Re-balancing the IT infrastructure,’ MIS Magazine, July 2002

10 Keith Newman, ‘Superhighway to close divide,’ Telecommunications Review, August 2003

11 Heather Wright, ‘Funding boost for Internet2,’ Dominion Post, 22 September 2003

12 ‘Demand Case for a New Zealand Advanced Network: Research Education and Innovation,’ released, 14 October 2003

13 Keith Newman, ‘NGI head takes parting shot at slow science,’ Telecommunications Review, June 2004

14 Juha Saarinen, ‘TelstraClear wins $43m REANNZ advanced network contract,’ Computerworld, 26 April 2006

15 Stephen Bell, ‘High-maintenance Karen will be costly to run,’ Computerworld, 12 September 2006

16 Peter Komisarczuk, ‘An ICT CRI?,’ New Zealand Computer Society (NZCS), 22 June 2007

17 Paul Clearwater, ‘KAREN proves its worth,’ The Line, 13 March 2007

18 Computerworld staff, ‘The National Library joins KAREN,’ 22 May 2007

19 ‘A Roadmap for Activities 2007–2009 Discussion

20 Research and Education Advanced Network New Zealand, Statement of Intent 2007–2010, May 2007

21 Dr Jim Watson the founding scientist and former chief executive of Genesis Research and Development Corporation, served as the head of the Department of Molecular Medicine, Auckland University, 1984–1993; a director of the FoRST (2000–2003), a member of the Growth and Innovation Advisory Board (2001–2004), and President of the Royal Society of New Zealand (2003–2006)

22 The Centre for Particle and Nuclear Physics (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland

23 A circular, very high-energy particle accelerator that accelerates protons through the action of magnetic fields and a high-frequency electric field (Microsoft Encarta)

24 Research and Education Advanced Network New Zealand annual report, year ended, 30 June 2007

25 Ulrika Hedquist, ‘Conferencing on steroids connects NZ universities,’ Computerworld, 25 July 2007

26 File transfer protocol

27 Ulrika Hedquist, ‘Service-oriented science is the future, says expat,’ Computerworld, 18 July 2007

28 Keith Newman, ‘Strategy shifts sought,’ magazine, September 2007

29 Teleconsultants Apropos Newsletter, July 2007

30 Randal Jackson, ‘FX Networks in $40 million network push,’ Computerworld, 5 June 2007

31 Matt Freeman, ‘Jim Tocher manages massive fibre network and core systems modernisation at Transpower,’ Telecommunications Review, 10 September 2007

32 Keith Newman, ‘Do it yourself telco,’ Telecommunications Review, September 2005

33 Broadband Challenge Update 6 December 2006:

34 Amy Williams, ‘Vector starts high speed network,’ NBR, 11 February 2007

35 Keith Newman, ‘Co-opetition only way forward for unbundled wholesaling,’ Telecommunications Review, November 2006

36 ‘Capital broadband plan likely to go ahead,’ Dominion Post, 1 March 2007


38 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Wellington seeks more help for broadband plan,’ Dominion Post, 24 September 2007

39 Ben Fawkes, ‘Broadband network crash upsets punters,’ 17 October 2007

40 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘ComCom may pick up pace on FTTN,’ Dominion Post, 15 October 2007

41 Ian Steward, ‘NZ Internet speed ‘a baby’s crawl,’ The Press, 13 June 2007

42 Ernie Newman, chief executive, TUANZ, Address to Telecommunications Summit, Auckland, 25 June 2007


44 Grant Gross, ‘Study: Internet could run out of capacity in two years,’ Computerworld, 21 November 2007

45 Paraphrased from ‘Coming soon: the Autobahn network,’ By Lisa Guernsey,, 28 May 2007



48 Grant Gross, ‘US National Science Foundation floats next-generation Internet,’ Computerworld, 19 September 2005

49 (URL was active at time of research)

50 Alison Hardie, ‘Why the search is on to find alternative to Internet,’ The Scotsman,17 April 2007,

51 Jon Hoyle, ‘No fast track to riches, Freeth warns,’ Dominion Post, 13 August 2007

52 The Council for Infrastructure Development has 43 corporate members, which include ASB Bank, BNZ and Westpac, Fletcher Building, Fonterra, Alcatel-Lucent and state-owned enterprises Kordia and Genesis Energy

53 Paul Clearwater, ‘Digital Strategy destined to fail without lift in investment,’ The Line, 20 September 2007


55 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Tender call for Telecom cable roll-out,’ Dominion Post, 14 September 2007

56 Helen Twose, ‘Plan takes fibre to NZ streets,’ NZ Herald, 27 October 2007

57 Telecom press release ‘Telecom commits to tough undertakings on operational separation,’ 26 October 2007

58 Helen Twose, ‘Huge fines hanging over Telecom,’ NZ Herald, 27 October 2007

59 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘Unbundle, then invest – Tuanz,’ Dominion Post, 5 February 2007

60 Tim Hunter, ‘Split Telecom twice as nice for the market,’ Sunday Star Times, 18 March 2007

61 Tim Hunter, ‘Telecom strikes back,’ Sunday Star Times, 29 April 2007

62 Helen Twose, ‘Huge fines hanging over Telecom’

63 Paul Clearwater, ‘Telecom delivers more detail on cabinetisation,’ The Line, 23 November 2007

64 InternetNZ submission:

65 Matt Freeman, ‘Industry bodies cry foul over Telecom’s operational separation plan,’ The Line, 26 November 2007

66 InternetNZ media release: ‘Telecom draft separation plan disappoints,’ 23 November 2007

67 David Cunliffe, media statement: ‘Challenge laid down for New Zealand’s digital future,’ 28 November 2007

68 Paul Clearwater, ‘Cunliffe warns Telecom there is more government intervention to come,’ The Line, 28 November 2007

69 Ulrika Hedquist, ‘Summit: Let’s get positive about broadband, says panel,’ Computerworld, 3 December 2007


1 Chris Barton, ‘Ringing the changes,’ NZ Herald, 13 May 2007

2 Chris Lewis, senior vice president of Ovum Telecom Research, industry report, 15 August 2007

3 James Weir, ‘Broadband needs state assistance – Gattung,’ Dominion Post, 1 June 2007


5 Paul Clearwater, ‘Digital Strategy destined to fail without lift in investment,’ The Line, 20 September 2007

6 Defining a Broadband Aspiration report:

7 Tom Pullar-Strecker, ‘NZ needs $1.5b to replace copper cables,’ Dominion Post,18 September 2006

8 ‘Nearly 2 Million New Zealanders Spent an Average of 20 Hours per Person on the Internet in March,’ ComScore, 25 April 2007

9 Nevil Gibson, ‘NZ tops list as least corrupt country,’ NBR, 27 September 2007

10 James Weir, ‘Job confidence hits a high,’ Dominion Post, 3 October 2007

11 The current account deficit for the year ended March 2007 was $13.9 billion (8.5 percent of GDP), Statistics New Zealand said today. This compares with deficits of $14.5 billion (9.0 percent of GDP) for the year ended December 2006 and $14.9 billion (9.6 percent of GDP) for the March 2006 year. Statistics NZ, 28 June 2007

12 ‘APEC: NZ economy one of world’s most open,’ agency story, 4 July 2007

13 Helen Malmgrem, ‘Kiwis world’s most satisfied,’ NBR, 5 July 2007

14 Lindsay Tisch, MP. National Party Small Business spokesperson: ‘Labour still failing business in vital areas,’ 25 October 2007

15 Based on 2006 Census figures:

16 Business New Zealand ‘Workplace Productivity Working Group’ report, 2006

17 Rob Stock, ‘40-hour week? Yea right,’ Sunday Star Times, 21 October 2007

18 Career Edge, Issue 14 February 2006:


20 Mike Houlahan, ‘Work-life balance a challenge for all of us,’ NZ Herald, 25 July 2006

21 ‘Kiwis and Aussies can’t switch off,’ NZ Herald, 18 August 2007

22 Aaron Drew, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, ‘New Zealand’s productivity performance and prospects:’

23 Maxim Institute: ‘Blogging blurs the information lines,’ 19 July 2007




27 ‘Now an airline’s fiddling with Wikipedia?,’, 3 September 2007

28 Derek Cheng, ‘On-line jokesters have a go at PM,’ NZ Herald, 25 August 2007

29 Andrew Stevenson, ‘Cyberspace: the new toilet wall,’ Sydney Morning Herald, 23 July 2007

30 Darryl Mason, ‘Howard’s $200 Million War On The Internet,’ 9 August 2007,

31 Sideswipe, NZ Herald, 4 August 2007

32 Keith Newman, ‘Broadband Reloaded’ feature, TUANZ, 2004

33 LinkedIn contributions from: Ian Miller, former journo and Internet entrepreneur, Peter Lineham, religious historian, Patrick Pilcher, technology researcher, Simon Young storyteller, Neil James, university professor, Andy Williamson, e-democracy advocate, Bevis England, Phil Harpur, senior analyst, Paul Budde, Communication, Richard Naylor, CityLink founder and Internet broadcast pioneer, Jason Kemp, strategic thinker, Keith Davidson, InternetNZ chief executive

34 ‘The Expanding Digital Universe: A Forecast of Worldwide Information Growth Through 2010:’


36 ‘Netcraft Web Server Survey,’

37 ‘The Expanding Digital Universe: A Forecast of Worldwide Information Growth Through 2010’

38 Claudine Beaumont, ‘Crunch time for Web wannabes,’ NZ Herald, 29 September 2007

39 ‘Moore says Moore’s law end is near,’ Reuters, 20 September 2007

40 ‘Intel to start “Penryn” production,’ Reuters, 26 October 2007


42 ‘Unknown impact of nanotech worries some,’ Reuters, 15 November 2007

43 John Blau Düsseldorf, ‘US military plans to put Internet router in space,’ Computerworld Germany, 16 April, 2007

44 Ray Kurzweil, futurist, inventor, engineer, scientist, visionary thinker and author. He was the principal developer of the first omni-font optical character recognition, the first print-to-speech reading machine for the blind, the first CCD flat-bed scanner, the first text-to-speech synthesiser, the first music synthesiser capable of recreating the grand piano and other orchestral instruments, and the first commercially marketed large-vocabulary speech recognition:

45 Thoughts and notes inspired by the columns of my former boss and media commentator Mike Walsh:

46 Ken Keyes Jnr, The One Hundredth Monkey

47 Paraphrased by Keith Newman from Watson’s book Lifetide. Curiously Takasakiyama (Mount Takasaki) is a forested mountain just outside of Beppu, home to more than 1500 wild Japanese monkeys. The monkeys are fed regularly by park wardens in order to keep them on the mountain and prevent conflicts with farmers and residents in the neighbourhood


49 Ron Amundson, ‘Watson and the Hundredth Monkey Phenomenon,’ Skeptical Inquirer, Spring 1987


51 ‘Email Updates Six Degrees Theory,’ Technology Research News, August 18, 2003; and also in Science magazine, 8 August 2003

52 Judith Kleinfield, ‘Six Degrees: Urban Myth?’ Psychology Today, March-April 2002,

53 Tom Paulson, Seattle-Post Intelligencer Reporter, ‘1.5 billion Web pages linked by 19 clicks of separation,’ 7 February 2000

54 Kimberly Patch, ‘Circuits show six degrees of separation,’ Technology Research News, October 2001

55 Email Updates Six Degrees Theory,’ Technology Research News, August 18, 2003; and also in Science magazine, 8 August 2003

56 Duncan Watts, Columbia University:, Six Degrees: The Science of A Connected Age (W. W. Norton, 2003) Collective Dynamics Group, Small World Project, or

57 Divina Paredes, ‘Who’s who in New Zealand ICT,’ CIO, March 2006


59 Yiddish for one who accumulates knowledge

60 Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point, Abacus, 2001, pp36–38, 46–49

61 Gladwell, pp30, 34, 56–60, 69–70, 91–92

62 Gladwell, pp172–173

63 Gladwell, pp36–38, 46–49


65 Eagle was posthumously inducted into the Flying Kiwi Hall of Fame which commemorates ICT greats at the PriceWaterhouseCoopers New Zealand HiTech Awards in November 2007. The founder of Eagle Technology at the time of his death in 2000 was chairman of 12 companies. For many years he took a leading role in the IT industry and was former president of the ITANZ. He shared the award with Bill Gallagher, CEO of multi-national manufacturing and marketing company Gallagher Group and son of Bill Gallagher Sr, who founded the company on the success of the electric fence. The company specialises in integrated security systems and specialised plastic products

66 Sir Angus, who died early in 2007 was the first inductee into the PriceWaterhouseCoopers New Zealand HiTech Awards, Flying Kiwi Hall of Fame

67 A global ERP software business acquired by Geac Corporation in 1990

68 A term apparently coined by Sheldon Renan, founder of Wibiki, which relates to the extent to which the individuals are linked to one another. “The emerging fabric of ubiquitous connectivity – not the technology, but the difference it will make between our past and our future”

69 Vint Cerf is often referred to as ‘father of the Internet’ and until recently was the head of ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)

70 In 1992 Gordon Cook founded the Cook report, the first newsletter focused on the development of the commercial Internet. He continues to explore ways to show local communities, policy makers and enterprises the value of broadband Internet as a locally owned and controlled infrastructure for collaboration, innovation and business and economic development and innovative use of the Internet for business and economic development. It is a critical enabler of business activity through real time collaboration among geographically-dispersed entrepreneurs and critical for the creation of value creation, talent building in the relationship economy,

71 Bob Frankston worked on the original Multics mainframe time sharing operating system, used the predecessor of the Internet from 1969, worked for Lotus and Microsoft on consumer use of computers and championed IP Everywhere to help make networking accessible for home computer users:

72 Ned Ludd and his followers the Luddites destroyed manufacturing machinery across England over a five-year period from 1811 believing technology was destroying employment and their quality of life. Today neo-Luddites oppose computerisation for similar reasons warning us that technology is taking over

73 References to “The future’s already arrived. It’s just not evenly distributed yet” go back to Usenet in early 1996 and there are several variants of the quote: “The Future is already here (It is just not uniformly distributed)” on a blog called Whuffle, which aligned with Time magazine writer Bill Buxton allegedly stealing a line from Gibson on 3 October 2004 and further references to the quote, with attribution to William Gibson, that appear in 2001 and 2002, including one book, Reinventing Strategy, published also on 12 April 2002. Another source Free, Perfect, and Now: A CEO’s True Story by Robert Rodin with Curtis Hartman, in February 1999 which says “the future can be hard to recognise. It’s not evenly distributed; it’s hidden in corners.” The question arises, did William Gibson read this book? Did Rodin read Gibson somewhere?

74 NPR Talk of the Nation, 30 November 1999 :; Also:


76 Communications Minister David Cunliffe, Telecommunications and ICT Summit, June 2007

77 Address at the Future Active gathering, run by the New Zealand Software Association in conjunction with North Shore City in November 1998

78 Kevin Roberts, speech to the New Zealand Stock Exchange: ‘Giving New Zealand the Edge,’ 19 September 2005:

79 68 degrees Fahrenheit

80 Futurist Applauds Kiwi Assets, (David Pearce Snyder, lifestyles editor of Futurist magazine) Keith Newman,, January 2001

81 Frans Johansson, The Medici Effect, Harvard Business School Press, 2004

82 A term coined by Charles Fort, a student and chronicler of anomalous, unexpected or hard to explain phenomena, which occurred outside of accepted theories.